Journal of Neural Transmission

, Volume 120, Issue 2, pp 347–348

Is there room for non-dopaminergic treatment in Parkinson disease?

Neurology and Preclinical Neurological Studies - CONy Pro/Con debate

DOI: 10.1007/s00702-012-0946-0

Cite this article as:
Lieberman, A. & Krishnamurthi, N. J Neural Transm (2013) 120: 347. doi:10.1007/s00702-012-0946-0


Although levodopa and dopaminergic drugs remain the mainstay of therapy for the motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD), they fail to address many of the non-motor symptoms of PD including orthostatic hypotension, freezing of gait (FOG) and difficulty with balance, drug-induced paranoia and hallucinations, and drug-induced dyskinesias. Droxidopa, a drug that increases norepinephrine, treats orthostatic hypotension, cholinomimetic drugs sometimes help with FOG and difficulty with balance, pimavanserin, a drug that blocks serotonin receptors, treats paranoia and hallucinations, and anti-glutaminergic drugs treat dyskinesias. Thus, there are ample opportunities for non-dopaminergic drugs in PD.


Parkinson disease Levodopa Non-dopaminergic drugs Non-motor symptoms 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Muhammad Ali Parkinson Center, Barrow Neurological InstituteSt. Joseph’s Hospital and Medical CenterPhoenixUSA

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