Journal of Neural Transmission

, Volume 119, Issue 10, pp 1121–1132 | Cite as

The effects of shift work on physical and mental health

  • Matthias Vogel
  • Tanja Braungardt
  • Wolfgang Meyer
  • Wolfgang SchneiderEmail author
Biological Psychiatry - Review article


Occupational engagement is a pre-requisite for continuous income opportunities. Among the changing social circumstances work-related conditions play an increasingly eminent role in psychological and mental well-being. The public discusses the question of a possible association between the demands of modern work life and the increases of psychological, psychosomatic and cardiovascular disorders. Given the socioeconomic implications of psychiatric and psychosomatic suffering in the general population, there is a need to further elucidate the causes of their increasing incidence. From a medical point of view, any organization of work disrupting the phased circadian rhythms for bio-psycho-social processes and functioning of the individual are interesting against the background of clock genes and certain biological functions that are organized in a circadian fashion. The authors review the influence of shift work as a form of systematic desynchronization of inner clock systems on the endocrine, the physical, and the mental level. The significance of the findings in the field is discussed along with future directions of conclusive research.


Shift work Desynchronization of circadian rhythms Melatonin Psychosocial implications of the working schedule 


  1. Ahola K, Hakanen J (2007) Job strain, burnout, and depressive symptoms: a prospective study among dentists. J Affect Disord 104:103–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akerstedt T (1990) Psychological and psychophysiological effects of shift work. Scand J Work Environ Health 16(Suppl 1):67–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Åkerstedt T (2003) Shift work and disturbed sleep/wakefulness. Occup Med 53:89–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akerstedt T, Wright KP Jr (2009) Sleep loss and fatigue in shift work and shift work disorder. Sleep Med Clin 4:257–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Akerstedt T, Ingre M, Broman JE, Kecklund G (2008) Disturbed sleep in shift workers, day workers, and insomniacs. Chronobiol Int 25:333–348PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alfredsson L, Akerstedt T, Mattsson M, Wilborg B (1991) Self-reported health and well-being amongst night security guards: a comparison with the working population. Ergonomics 34:525–530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) (2005) International Classification of Sleep Disorders: Diagnostic and Coding Manual, 2nd edn. AASM, WestchesterGoogle Scholar
  8. Angerer P, Petru R (2010) Schichtarbeit in der modernen Industriegesellschaft und gesundheitliche Folgen. Somnologie Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin 14:88–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Angersbach D, Knauth P, Loskant H, Karvonen MJ, Undeutsch K, Rutenfranz J (1980) A retrospective cohort study comparing complaints and diseases in day and shift workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 45:127–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Arana GW, Baldessarini RJ, Ornsteen M (1985) The dexamethasone suppression test for diagnosis and prognosis in psychiatry. Commentary and review. Arch Gen Psychiatry 42:1193–1204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ardekani ZZ, Kakooei H, Ayattollahi SM, Choobineh A, Seraji GN (2008) Prevalence of mental disorders among shift work hospital nurses in Shiraz, Iran. Pak J Biol Sci: PJBS 11:1605–1609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Arnetz BB, Brenner SO, Levi L, Hjelm R, Petterson IL, Wasserman J, Petrini B, Eneroth P, Kallner A, Kvetnansky R et al (1991) Neuroendocrine and immunologic effects of unemployment and job insecurity. Psychother Psychosom 55:76–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bara AC, Arber S (2009) Working shifts and mental health—findings from the British Household Panel Survey (1995-2005). Scand J Work Environ Health 35:361–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barnes-Farrell JL, Davies-Schrils K, McGonagle A, Walsh B, Milia LD, Fischer FM, Hobbs BB, Kaliterna L, Tepas D (2008) What aspects of shiftwork influence off-shift well-being of healthcare workers? Appl Ergonomics 39:589–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bebbington PE (1999) Psychosocial causes of depression. JGSM (The official journal of the Partnership for Women’s Health at Columbia) 2:52–60Google Scholar
  16. Beermann B (2010) Nacht- und Schichtarbeit. In: Badura B, Schröder H, Klose J, Macco K (eds) Fehlzeitenreport 2009. Springer, Berlin, pp71–82Google Scholar
  17. Boggild H, Tuchsen F, Orhede E (1996) Occupation, employment status and chronic inflammatory bowel disease in Denmark. Int J Epidemiol 25:630–637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boscolo P, Di Gioacchino M, Reale M, Muraro R, Di Giampaolo L (2011) Work stress and innate immune response. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 24:51S–54SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bosma H, Peter R, Siegrist J, Marmot M (1998) Two alternative job stress models and the risk of coronary heart disease. Am J Public health 88:68–74Google Scholar
  20. Buscemi N, Vandermeer B, Hooton N, Pandya R, Tjosvold L, Hartling L, Baker G, Klassen TP, Vohra S (2005) The efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin for primary sleep disorders. A meta-analysis. J Gen Intern Med 20:1151–1158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Buscemi N, Vandermeer B, Hooton N, Pandya R, Tjosvold L, Hartling L, Vohra S, Klassen TP, Baker G (2006) Efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin for secondary sleep disorders and sleep disorders accompanying sleep restriction: meta-analysis. BMJ (Clinical research ed) 332:385–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Campino C, Valenzuela F, Arteaga E, Torres-Farfan C, Trucco C, Velasco A, Guzman S, Seron-Ferre M (2008) Melatonin reduces cortisol response to ACTH in humans. Rev Med Chil 136:1390–1397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Conlon M, Lightfoot N, Kreiger N (2007) Rotating shift work and risk of prostate cancer. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass) 18:182–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Costa G (2003) Factors influencing health of workers and tolerance to shift work. Theor Issues Ergonomics Sci 4:263–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Costa G, Akerstedt T, Nachreiner F, Baltieri F, Carvalhais J, Folkard S, Dresen MF, Gadbois C, Gartner J, Sukalo HG, Harma M, Kandolin I, Sartori S, Silverio J (2004) Flexible working hours, health, and well-being in Europe: some considerations from a SALTSA project. Chronobiol Int 21:831–844PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Culpepper L (2010) The social and economic burden of shift-work disorder. J Family Practice 59:S3–S11Google Scholar
  27. De Bacquer D, Pelfrene E, Clays E, Mak R, Moreau M, de Smet P, Kornitzer M, De Backer G (2005) Perceived job stress and incidence of coronary events: 3-year follow-up of the Belgian Job Stress Project cohort. Am J Epidemiol 161:434–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Derogatis L R,Unger R (2010) Symptom Checklist-90-Revised The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. Dirken JM (1966) Industrial shift work: decrease in well-being and specific effects. Ergonomics 9:115–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Drake CL, Roehrs T, Richardson G, Walsh JK, Roth T (2004) Shift work sleep disorder: prevalence and consequences beyond that of symptomatic day workers. Sleep 27:1453–1462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Driesen K, Jansen NW, van Amelsvoort LG, Kant I (2011) The mutual relationship between shift work and depressive complaints—a prospective cohort study. Scand J Work Environ Health 37:402–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Eaker ED, Sullivan LM, Kelly-Hayes M, D’Agostino RB Sr, Benjamin EJ (2004) Does job strain increase the risk for coronary heart disease or death in men and women? The Framingham Offspring Study. Am J Epidemiol 159:950–958PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Elenkov IJ, Chrousos GP (2002) Stress hormones, proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines, and autoimmunity. Ann N Y Acad Sci 966:290–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fellerhoff B, Laumbacher B, Mueller N, Gu S, Wank R (2007) Associations between Chlamydophila infections, schizophrenia and risk of HLA-A10. Mol Psychiatry 12:264–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Folkard S, Akerstedt T (2004) Trends in the risk of accidents and injuries and their implications for models of fatigue and performance. Aviat Space Environ Med 75:A161–A167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Folkard S, Tucker P (2003) Shift work, safety and productivity. Occup Med (Oxford, England) 53:95–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Frost P, Kolstad HA, Bonde JP (2009) Shift work and the risk of ischemic heart disease—a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence. Scand J Work Environ Health 35:163–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Godin I, Kittel F, Coppieters Y, Siegrist J (2005) A prospective study of cumulative job stress in relation to mental health. BMC Public Health 5:67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Harrington JM (2001) Health effects of shift work and extended hours of work. Occup Environ Med 58:68–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hermansson J, Gillander Gadin K, Karlsson B, Lindahl B, Stegmayr B, Knutsson A (2007) Ischemic stroke and shift work. Scand J Work Environ Health 33:435–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Higashi T, Sakurai H, Satoh T, Toyama T (1988) Absenteeism of shift and day workers with special reference to peptic ulcer. Asia Pac J Pub Health/Asia Pac Acad Consortium Pub Health 2:112–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hill SM, Blask DE, Xiang S, Yuan L, Mao L, Dauchy RT, Dauchy EM, Frasch T, Duplesis T (2011) Melatonin and associated signaling pathways that control normal breast epithelium and breast cancer. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 16:235–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hoogerwerf WA, Hellmich HL, Cornelissen G, Halberg F, Shahinian VB, Bostwick J, Savidge TC, Cassone VM (2007) Clock gene expression in the murine gastrointestinal tract: endogenous rhythmicity and effects of a feeding regimen. Gastroenterology 133:1250–1260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kantermann T, Juda M, Vetter C, Roenneberg T (2010) Shift-work research: where do we stand, where should we go? Sleep Biol Rhythm 8:95–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Karasek RA (1979) Job demands, job decision latitude, and mental strain—implication for job redesign. Adm Sci Q 24:285–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Karasek R, Theorell T (1990) Healthy work: stress, productivity and the reconstruction of working life. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  47. Karlsson B, Knutsson A, Lindahl B (2001) Is there an association between shift work and having a metabolic syndrome? Results from a population based study of 27,485 people. Occup Environ Med 58:747–752PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Karlsson B, Alfredsson L, Knutsson A, Andersson E, Toren K (2005) Total mortality and cause-specific mortality of Swedish shift- and dayworkers in the pulp and paper industry in 1952-2001. Scand J Work Environ Health 31:30–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kawakami N, Araki S, Takatsuka N, Shimizu H, Ishibashi H (1999) Overtime, psychosocial working conditions, and occurrence of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in Japanese men. J Epidemiol Community Health 53:359–363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kennedy SH, Emsley R (2006) Placebo-controlled trial of agomelatine in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol J Eur College Neuropsychopharmacol 16:93–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kino T, Chrousos GP (2011) Acetylation-mediated epigenetic regulation of glucocorticoid receptor activity: circadian rhythm-associated alterations of glucocorticoid actions in target tissues. Mol Cell Endocrinol 336:23–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kivimaki M, Leino-Arjas P, Luukkonen R, Riihimaki H, Vahtera J, Kirjonen J (2002) Work stress and risk of cardiovascular mortality: prospective cohort study of industrial employees. BMJ (Clinical Research ed) 325:857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kivimaki M, Vahtera J, Elovainio M, Virtanen M, Siegrist J (2007) Effort-reward imbalance, procedural injustice and relational injustice as psychosocial predictors of health: complementary or redundant models? Occup Environ Med 64:659–665PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kivimäki M, Batty GD, Hublin C (2011) Shift work as a risk factor for future type 2 diabetes: evidence, mechanisms, implications, and future research directions. PLoS Med 8:e1001138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Knutsson A (1989) Shift work and coronary heart disease. Scand J Soc Med Suppl 44:1–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Knutsson A (2003) Health disorders of shift workers. Occup Med (Oxford, England) 53:103–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Knutsson A, Boggild H (2010) Gastrointestinal disorders among shift workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 36:85–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kojima S, Tohei A, Ikeda M (2011) Melatonin inhibits tachykinin NK2 receptor-triggered 5-HT release from guinea pig isolated colonic mucosa. Br J Pharmacol 162:1179–1185Google Scholar
  59. Koller M, Kundi M, Cervinka R (1978) Field studies of shift work at an Austrian oil refinery I: health and psychosocial wellbeing of workers who drop out of shiftwork. Ergonomics 21:835–847PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kubo T, Ozasa K, Mikami K, Wakai K, Fujino Y, Watanabe Y, Miki T, Nakao M, Hayashi K, Suzuki K, Mori M, Washio M, Sakauchi F, Ito Y, Yoshimura T, Tamakoshi A (2006) Prospective cohort study of the risk of prostate cancer among rotating-shift workers: findings from the Japan collaborative cohort study. Am J Epidemiol 164:549–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kuper H, Marmot M (2003) Job strain, job demands, decision latitude, and risk of coronary heart disease within the Whitehall II study. J Epidemiol Community Health 57:147–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kuper H, Marmot M, Hemingway H (2002) Systematic review of prospective cohort studies of psychosocial factors in the etiology and prognosis of coronary heart disease. Semin Vasc Med 2:267–314Google Scholar
  63. Lahti TA, Partonen T, Kyyronen P, Kauppinen T, Pukkala E (2008) Night-time work predisposes to non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Int J Cancer J Int du cancer 123:2148–2151Google Scholar
  64. Li YM, Du J, Zhang H, Yu CH (2008) Epidemiological investigation in outpatients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux from the Department of Medicine in Zhejiang Province, east China. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 23:283–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lin YC, Hsiao TJ, Chen PC (2009a) Persistent rotating shift-work exposure accelerates development of metabolic syndrome among middle-aged female employees: a five-year follow-up. Chronobiol Int 26:740–755PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lin YC, Hsiao TJ, Chen PC (2009b) Shift work aggravates metabolic syndrome development among early-middle-aged males with elevated ALT. WJG 15:5654–5661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lindberg G, Iwarzon M, Hammarlund B (1996) 24-hour ambulatory electrogastrography in healthy volunteers. Scand J Gastroenterol 31:658–664PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mausner-Dorsch H, Eaton WW (2000) Psychosocial work environment and depression: epidemiologic assessment of the demand-control model. Am J Public Health 90:1765–1770PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mediavilla MD, Sanchez-Barcelo EJ, Tan DX, Manchester L, Reiter RJ (2010) Basic mechanisms involved in the anti-cancer effects of melatonin. Curr Med Chem 17:4462–4481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mikuni E, Ohoshi T, Hayashi K, Miyamura K (1983) Glucose intolerance in an employed population. Tohoku J Exp Med 141(Suppl):251–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mitchell HA, Weinshenker D (2010) Good night and good luck: norepinephrine in sleep pharmacology. Biochem Pharmacol 79:801–809PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Moore JG, Englert E Jr (1970) Circadian rhythm of gastric acid secretion in man. Nature 226:1261–1262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Moore JG, Wolfe M (1973) The relation of plasma gastrin to the circadian rhythm of gastric acid secretion in man. Digestion 9:97–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Moore JG, Wolfe M (1974) Circadian plasma gastrin patterns in feeding and fasting man. Digestion 11:226–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Morikawa Y, Nakagawa H, Miura K, Soyama Y, Ishizaki M, Kido T, Naruse Y, Suwazono Y, Nogawa K (2005) Shift work and the risk of diabetes mellitus among Japanese male factory workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 31:179–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Nakata A (2011) Work hours, sleep sufficiency, and prevalence of depression among full-time employees: a community-based cross-sectional study. J Clin Psychiatry 72:605–614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Netterstrom B, Kristensen TS, Sjol A (2006) Psychological job demands increase the risk of ischaemic heart disease: a 14-year cohort study of employed Danish men. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil (Official J Europ Soc Cardiology, Working Groups on Epidemiology and Prevention and Cardiac Physiology) 13:414–420Google Scholar
  78. Nicholson PJ, D’Auria DAP (1999) Shift work, health, the working time regulations and health assessments. Occup Med 49:127–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Niu SF, Chung MH, Chen CH, Hegney D, O’Brien A, Chou KR (2011) The effect of shift rotation on employee cortisol profile, sleep quality, fatigue, and attention level: a systematic review. JNR 19:68–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pandi-Perumal SR, Srinivasan V, Spence DW, Cardinali DP (2007) Role of the melatonin system in the control of sleep: therapeutic implications. CNS Drugs 21:995–1018PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Parent-Thirion A, Fernández ME, Hurley J, Vermeylen G (2007) Fourth European working conditions survey. In: European foundation for the improvement of living and working conditions. Office for official publications of the European communities, Luxembourg, pp 1–134. Accessed 2 April 2012
  82. Pariante CM (2008) Pituitary volume in psychosis: the first review of the evidence. J Psychopharmacol (Oxford, England) 22:76–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pariante CM (2009) Risk factors for development of depression and psychosis. Glucocorticoid receptors and pituitary implications for treatment with antidepressant and glucocorticoids. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1179:144–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Peter R, Alfredsson L, Knutsson A, Siegrist J, Westerholm P (1999) Does a stressful psychosocial work environment mediate the effects of shift work on cardiovascular risk factors? Scand J Work Environ Health 25:376–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pietroiusti A, Neri A, Somma G, Coppeta L, Iavicoli I, Bergamaschi A, Magrini A (2010) Incidence of metabolic syndrome among night-shift healthcare workers. Occup Environ Med 67:54–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pilcher JJ, Lambert BJ, Huffcutt AI (2000) Differential effects of permanent and rotating shifts on self-report sleep length: a meta-analytic review. Sleep 23:155–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Prunier-Poulmaire S, Gadbois C, Volkoff S (1998) Combined effects of shift systems and work requirements on customs officers. Scand J Work Environ Health 24(Suppl 3):134–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Rahman SA, Marcu S, Kayumov L, Shapiro CM (2010) Altered sleep architecture and higher incidence of subsyndromal depression in low endogenous melatonin secretors. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 260:327–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Roenneberg T, Wirz-Justice A, Merrow M (2003) Life between clocks: daily temporal patterns of human chronotypes. J Biol Rhythm 18:80–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rutenfranz J, Colquhoun WP, Knauth P, Ghata JN (1977) Biomedical and psychosocial aspects of shift work. A review. Scand J Work Environ Health 3:165–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Schernhammer ES, Laden F, Speizer FE, Willett WC, Hunter DJ, Kawachi I, Fuchs CS, Colditz GA (2003) Night-shift work and risk of colorectal cancer in the nurses’ health study. J Natl Cancer Inst 95:825–828PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Schneider W (2011) Psychosoziale Herausforderungen der Arbeitswelt in der postmodernen Gesellschaft. Psychotherapeut 56:8–15Google Scholar
  93. Schwartz JR, Roth T (2006) Shift work sleep disorder: burden of illness and approaches to management. Drugs 66:2357–2370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Schwartzbaum J, Ahlbom A, Feychting M (2007) Cohort study of cancer risk among male and female shift workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 33:336–343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schwarz MJ, Chiang S, Muller N, Ackenheil M (2001) T-helper-1 and T-helper-2 responses in psychiatric disorders. Brain Behav Immun 15:340–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Selvi Y, Özdemir PG, Özdemir O, Aydın A, Beşiroğlu L (2010) Influence of night shift work on psychologic state and quality of life in health workers. J Psychiatry Neurol Sci 23:238–243Google Scholar
  97. Siegrist J (1996) Adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions. J Occup Health Psychol 1:27–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Siegrist J, Peter R, Junge A, Cremer P, Seidel D (1990) Low status control, high effort at work and ischemic heart disease: prospective evidence from blue-collar men. Soc Sci Med 31:1127–1134Google Scholar
  99. Son GH, Chung S, Kim K (2011) The adrenal peripheral clock: glucocorticoid and the circadian timing system. Front Neuroendocrinol 32:451–465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Staines GL, Pleck JH (1986) Work schedule flexibility and family life. J Organ Behav 7:147–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sugisawa A, Uehata T (1998) Onset of peptic ulcer and its relation to work-related factors and life events: a prospective study. J Occup Health 40:22–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Takeyama H, Matsumoto S, Murata K, Ebara T, Kubo T, Tachi N, Itani T (2004) Effects of the length and timing of nighttime naps on task performance and physiological function. Rev Saude Publica 38(Suppl):32–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Tamura H, Nakamura Y, Terron MP, Flores LJ, Manchester LC, Tan DX, Sugino N, Reiter RJ (2008) Melatonin and pregnancy in the human. Reprod Toxicol (Elmsford, NY) 25:291–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Tarquini B, Cecchettin M, Cariddi A (1986) Serum gastrin and pepsinogen in shift workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 58:99–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Terry PD, Villinger F, Bubenik GA, Sitaraman SV (2009) Melatonin and ulcerative colitis: evidence, biological mechanisms, and future research. Inflamm Bowel Dis 15:134–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tuchsen F, Jeppesen HJ, Bach E (1994) Employment status, non-daytime work and gastric ulcer in men. Int J Epidemiol 23:365–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Tynes T, Hannevik M, Andersen A, Vistnes AI, Haldorsen T (1996) Incidence of breast cancer in Norwegian female radio and telegraph operators. CCC 7:197–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Ursin R (2002) Serotonin and sleep. Sleep Med Rev 6:55–69Google Scholar
  109. van Boven K, Lucassen P, van Ravesteijn H, Hartman T, Bor H, van Weel-Baumgarten E, van Weel C (2011) Do unexplained symptoms predict anxiety or depression? Ten-year data from a practice-based research network. Br J Gen Practice J Royal College Gen Pract 61:e316–e325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Vegso S, Cantley L, Slade M, Taiwo O, Sircar K, Rabinowitz P, Fiellin M, Russi MB, Cullen MR (2007) Extended work hours and risk of acute occupational injury: a case-crossover study of workers in manufacturing. Am J Ind Med 50:597–603PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Virtanen M, Stansfeld SA, Fuhrer R, Ferrie JE, Kivimäki M (2012) Overtime work as a predictor of major depressive episode: a 5-year follow-up of the Whitehall II Study. PLoS ONE 7:e30719PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Vogel M, Busse S, Freyberger HJ, Grabe HJ (2006) Dopamine D3 receptor and schizophrenia: a widened scope for the immune hypothesis. Med Hypotheses 67:354–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Walker (1985) Social problems of shiftwork. In: Folkard S, Monk T (eds) Hours of work: temporal factors in work scheduling. Wiley, Chichester, pp 221–225Google Scholar
  114. Wang XS, Armstrong ME, Cairns BJ, Key TJ, Travis RC (2011) Shift work and chronic disease: the epidemiological evidence. Occup Med (Oxford, England) 61:78–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Westerberg L, Theorell T (1997) Working conditions and family situation in relation to functional gastrointestinal disorders. The Swedish Dyspepsia Project. Scand J Prim Health Care 15:76–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wittchen HU, Jacobi F (2005) Size and burden of mental disorders in Europe—a critical review and appraisal of 27 studies. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol J Eur College Neuropsychopharmacol 15:357–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Ylipaavalniemi J, Kivimaki M, Elovainio M, Virtanen M, Keltikangas-Jarvinen L, Vahtera J (2005) Psychosocial work characteristics and incidence of newly diagnosed depression: a prospective cohort study of three different models. Soc Sci Med (1982) 61:111–122Google Scholar
  118. Zhen LuW, Ann Gwee K, Yu Ho K (2006) Functional bowel disorders in rotating shift nurses may be related to sleep disturbances. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 18:623–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Zober A, Schilling D, Ott MG, Schauwecker P, Riemann JF, Messerer P (1998) Helicobacter pylori infection: prevalence and clinical relevance in a large company. J Occup Environ Med 40:586–594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthias Vogel
    • 1
  • Tanja Braungardt
    • 1
  • Wolfgang Meyer
    • 1
  • Wolfgang Schneider
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and PsychotherapyUniversity of RostockRostockGermany

Personalised recommendations