Journal of Neural Transmission

, Volume 118, Issue 7, pp 1055–1064 | Cite as

Hepatic consequences of vascular adhesion protein-1 expression

Basic Neurosciences, Genetics and Immunology - Review Article

Abstract

The liver is constantly exposed to antigens present in the blood and to particulate antigens delivered from the gut. To maintain effective levels of immune surveillance and yet tolerate food antigens, the hepatic environment has become highly specialised. A low flow environment exists within the hepatic sinusoids that not only facilitates the exchange of toxins and nutrients within the liver parenchyma, but also provides an ideal niche for the recruitment of leukocytes. One such adhesion molecule involved in this process, the vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1), is unusual in the context of the leukocyte adhesion cascade in that it is both an adhesion molecule and a primary amine oxidase. In this review, we examine the biological functions of VAP-1 and examine what role this molecule might play in the establishment and progression of chronic liver disease.

Keywords

Vascular adhesion protein-1 SSAO Liver Hepatic Leukocyte recruitment Primary amine oxidase 

Abbreviations

HCC

Hepatocellular carcinoma

HCV

Hepatitis C virus

HEV

High endothelial venule

LSEC

Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells

LOX

Lysyl oxidase

MAdCAM-1

Mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1

MAO

Monoamine oxidase

NAFLD

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

NASH

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

PBC

Primary biliary cirrhosis

PSC

Primary sclerosing cholangitis

SSAO

Semicarbazide sensitive amine oxidase

VAP-1

Vascular adhesion protein-1

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© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Liver Research and NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, 5th Floor, Institute of Biomedical Research, MRC Centre for Immune Regulation, College of Medicine and DentistryUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK

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