Journal of Neural Transmission

, Volume 117, Issue 5, pp 655–662

Preliminary fMRI findings on the effects of event rate in adults with ADHD

  • Libbe Kooistra
  • Jaap J. van der Meere
  • Jodi D. Edwards
  • Bonnie J. Kaplan
  • Susan Crawford
  • Bradley G. Goodyear
Biological Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Original Article


Inhibition problems in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are sensitive to stimulus event rate. This pilot study explores the neural basis of this increased susceptibility to event rate in ADHD. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used in conjunction with the administration of a fast (1.5 s) and a slow (7 s) Go/No-Go task. Brain activity patterns and reaction times of ten young male adults with ADHD (two of whom were in partial remission) and ten healthy male controls were compared. The ADHD group responded slower than controls with greater variability but with similar number of errors. Accurate response inhibition in the ADHD group in the slow condition was associated with widespread fronto-striatal activation, including the thalamus. For correct Go trials only, the ADHD group compared with controls showed substantial under-activation in the slow condition. The observed abnormal brain activation in the slow condition in adults with ADHD supports a fronto-striatal etiology, and underlines a presumed activation regulation deficit. Larger sample sizes to further validate these preliminary findings are needed.


ADHD Adults Neuroimaging Event rate Inhibition Activation regulation 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Libbe Kooistra
    • 1
    • 5
  • Jaap J. van der Meere
    • 2
  • Jodi D. Edwards
    • 3
  • Bonnie J. Kaplan
    • 1
  • Susan Crawford
    • 1
  • Bradley G. Goodyear
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Behavioral Research Unit, Department of PediatricsAlberta Children’s Hospital, University of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  2. 2.Department of Clinical NeuropsychologyUniversity of GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Seaman Family MR Research Centre, The Hotchkiss Brain InstituteCalgaryCanada
  4. 4.Departments of Radiology and Clinical NeurosciencesUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  5. 5.Foothills AcademyCalgaryCanada

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