Journal of Neural Transmission

, Volume 117, Issue 2, pp 207–216 | Cite as

1 Hz rTMS preconditioned by tDCS over the primary motor cortex in Parkinson’s disease: effects on bradykinesia of arm and hand

  • Ulrike Grüner
  • Carsten Eggers
  • Mitra Ameli
  • Anna-Sophia Sarfeld
  • Gereon R. Fink
  • Dennis Alexander Nowak
Movement Disorders - Original Article

Abstract

To investigate whether a period of 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over M1 preconditioned by tDCS improves bradykinesia of the upper limb in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Fifteen patients with PD performed index finger, hand tapping and horizontal pointing movements as well as reach-to-grasp movements with either hand before (baseline conditions) and after a period of 1 Hz rTMS preconditioned by (1) sham, (2) anodal or (3) cathodal tDCS over the primary motor cortex contralateral to the more affected body side. Movement kinematics was analysed using an ultrasound-based motion analyser at baseline, immediately after and 30 min after each stimulation session. Dopaminergic medication was continued. Compared to baseline, 1 Hz rTMS significantly increased the frequency of index finger and hand tapping as well as horizontal pointing movements performed with the contralateral hand. Movement frequency increased up to 40% over 30 min after cessation of the stimulation. Preconditioning with cathodal tDCS, but not with anodal tDCS, reduced the effectiveness of 1 Hz rTMS to improve tapping and pointing movements. There was no significant increase of movement frequencies of the ipsilateral hand induced by 1 Hz rTMS preconditioned by either tDCS session. Movement kinematics of reach-to-grasp movements were not significantly influenced by either stimulation session. In PD the beneficial effects of 1 Hz rTMS over the primary motor cortex on bradykinesia of simple finger, hand and pointing movements is reduced by preconditioning with cathodal tDCS, but not with anodal tDCS. Preconditioning with tDCS is a powerful tool to modulate the behavioural effect of 1 Hz rTMS over the primary motor cortex in PD.

Keywords

Basal ganglia Neuromodulation Brain plasticity M1 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The study was supported by a stipend of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG NO737/4-1) to Dennis A. Nowak.

Conflict of interest statement

None of the authors has any financial disclosures regarding the present manuscript. The study was supported by a grant of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) to Dennis A. Nowak (NO 737/4-1).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ulrike Grüner
    • 1
  • Carsten Eggers
    • 1
  • Mitra Ameli
    • 1
  • Anna-Sophia Sarfeld
    • 1
  • Gereon R. Fink
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dennis Alexander Nowak
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyUniversity of CologneCologneGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3), Cognitive NeurologyResearch Centre JülichJülichGermany
  3. 3.Human Sensorimotor Control LaboratoryUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  4. 4.Neurochirurgische und Neurologische FachklinikKlinik KipfenbergKipfenbergGermany

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