Psychiatric morbidity with focus on obsessive–compulsive disorder in an Israeli cohort of adolescents with mild to moderate mental retardation
- 211 Downloads
The study evaluated the prevalence of DSM-IV-TR-defined psychiatric disorders in adolescents with mental retardation, with a focus on obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), for which data at present are sparse. Eighty-seven adolescents with mild to moderate mental retardation attending the Israeli special-education system were screened for psychiatric disorders in general and obsessive–compulsive symptoms in particular. Sixty-one percent had at least one psychiatric disorder. Of the 13 participants receiving antipsychotic medication, none had an underlying psychotic disorder and most had anxiety or depressive disorders. OCD was detected in 11% of participants and was characterized by high rates of psychiatric comorbidities. The severity of autistic symptoms predicted 39% of the variance in the severity of OCD symptoms. Adolescents with mild to moderate mental retardation have high rates of psychiatric morbidities that are often inappropriately treated. OCD is prevalent in this population and is strongly associated with autistic symptoms. Further studies are required in adolescents with mental retardation to better delineate psychiatric morbidities and their appropriate treatment in this at-risk population.
KeywordsAdolescence Mental retardation Intellectual disability Psychiatric disorders Obsessive–compulsive disorder Autism Antipsychotics
This work was supported by a grant from Shalem Fund for the Development of Services for people with Mental Retardation in the Local Councils in Israel. The authors thank Gloria Ginzach of the Editorial Board, Rabin Medical Center.
- AACAP (1998) Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with obsessive–compulsive disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 37(Suppl):27S–45SGoogle Scholar
- Bejerot S (2006) Autism spectrum disorders, autistic traits and personality disorders in obsessive–compulsive disorder. In: Gross-Isseroff R, Weizman A (eds) Obsessive–compulsive disorder and comorbidity. Nova Science, Hauppauge, pp 59–102Google Scholar
- Borthwick-Duffy SA (1994) Epidemiology and prevalence of psychopathology in people with mental retardation. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 62:17–27Google Scholar
- Curry CJ, Stevenson RE, Aughton D, Byrne J, Carey JC, Cassidy S, Cunniff C, Graham JM Jr, Jones MC, Kaback MM, Moeschler J, Schaefer GB, Schwartz S, Tarleton J, Opitz J (1997) Evaluation of mental retardation: recommendations of a Consensus Conference: American College of Medical Genetics. Am J Med Genet 72:468–477 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gothelf D, Presburger G, Zohar AH, Burg M, Nahmani A, Frydman M, Shohat M, Inbar D, Aviram-Goldring A, Yeshaya J, Steinberg T, Finkelstein Y, Frisch A, Weizman A, Apter A (2004) Obsessive–compulsive disorder in patients with velocardiofacial (22q11 deletion) syndrome. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 126:99–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hollingshead AB (1975) Four factor index of social status. Yale University Department of Sociology, New HavenGoogle Scholar
- Kanner L, Eisenberg L (1957) Early infantile autism, 1943–1955. Psychiatr Res Rep Am Psychiatr Assoc 55–65Google Scholar
- Kaufman J, Birmaher B, Brent D, Rao U, Flynn C, Moreci P, Williamson E, Ryan N (1997) Schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children-present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL): initial reliability and validity data. J Arn Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:980–988 CrossRefGoogle Scholar