Role of reactive nitrogen and reactive oxygen species against MPTP neurotoxicity in mice
- 315 Downloads
There is growing evidence indicating that reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a major contributor to the pathogenesis and progression of Parkinson’s disease. Here we investigated whether edaravone (free radical scavenger), minocycline (inducible nitric oxide synthase, iNOS inhibitor), 7-nitroindazole (neuronal NOS, nNOS inhibitor), fluvastatin (endothelial NOS, eNOS activator) and pitavastatin (eNOS activator) can protect against MPTP neurotoxicity in mice under the same condition. The present study showed that 7-nitroindazole could protect dose-dependently against the striatal dopamine depletions in mice 5 days after MPTP treatment. In contrast, edaravone, minocycline, fluvastatin and pitavastatin did not show the neuroprotective effect on MPTP-induced striatal dopamine depletion. Our immunohistochemical study showed that TH (tyrosine hydroxylase) and DAT (dopamine transporter) immunoreactivity was decreased significantly in the striatum and substantia nigra 5 days after MPTP treatment. The administration of 7-nitroindazole showed a protective effect against the severe reductions in levels of TH and DAT immunoreactivity in the striatum and substantia nigra 5 days after MPTP treatment. Furthermore, our Western blot analyses study showed the remarkable loss of TH protein levels in the striatum 5 days after MPTP treatment. In contrast, 7-nitroindazole prevented a significant loss in TH protein levels in the striatum 5 days after MPTP treatment. On the other hand, GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) immunoreactivity increased significantly in the striatum and substantia nigra, 5 days after MPTP treatment. 7-Nitroindazole ameliorated severe increases in number of GFAP immunoreactive astrocytes in the striatum and substantia nigra 5 days after MPTP treatment. Furthermore, our Western blot analyses study showed the increase of GFAP protein levels in the striatum 5 days after MPTP treatment. 7-Nitroindazole prevented a significant increase in the GFAP protein levels in the striatum 5 days after MPTP treatment. The present results indicate that 7-nitroindazole can protect dose-dependently against the striatal dopamine depletions in mice 5 days after MPTP treatment. In contrast, edaravone, minocycline, fluvastatin and pitavastatin did not show the neuroprotective effect on MPTP-induced striatal dopamine depletions. These findings demonstrate that the overexpression of nNOS may play a major role in the neurotoxic processes of MPTP, as compared to the production of ROS, the overexpression of iNOS and the modulation of eNOS. Thus, our findings provide strong evidence for neuroprotective properties of nNOS inhibitor in this animal model of Parkinson’s disease.
KeywordsParkinson’s disease Oxidative stress Immunohistochemistry Western blot analysis Dopaminergic system Mice
This study was supported in part by the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (12877163, 13671095 and 13670627) from the Ministry of Science and Education in Japan. We thank Yuko Kamiyama for technical assistance with HPLC.
- Chen LW, Zhang JP, Shum DKY, Chan YS (2006) Localization of nerve growth factor, neurotropin-3, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in nestin-expressing reactive astrocytes in the caudate-putamen of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated C57/Bl mice. J Comp Neurol 497:898–909PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dawson VL, Dawson TM, London ED, Bredit DS, Snyder SH (1991) Nitric oxide mediates glutamate neurotoxicity in primary cultures. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:6268–6371Google Scholar
- Du Y, Ma Z, Lin S, Dodel RC, Gao F, Bales KR, Thiarhou LC, Chernet E, Perry KW, Nelson DL, Luecke S, Phebus LA, Bymaster FP, Paul SM (2001) Minocycline prevents nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the MPTP model of Parkinson’s disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:14669–14674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Paisan-Ruiz C, Jain S, Evans EW, Gilks WP, Simon J, van der Brug M, de Munain AL, Aparico S, Gil AM, Khan N, Johnson J, Martinez JR, Nicholl D, Carrera IM, Pena AS, de Silva R, lees A, Marti-Masso JF, Perez-Tur J, Wood NW, Singleton AB (2004) Cloning of the gene containing mutations that cause PARK8-linked Parkinson’s disease. Neuron 44:595–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Polymeropoulos MH, Lavedan C, Leroy E, Ide SE, Dehejia A, Dutra A, Pike B, Root H, Rubenstein J, Boyer R, Stenroos ES, Chandrasekharappa S, Athanassiadou A, Papapetropous T, Johnson WG, Lazzarini AM, Duvoison RC, Di Iorio G, Golbe LI, Nussbaum RL (1997) Mutation in the alpha-synuclein gene identified in families with Parkinson’s disease. Science 276:2045–2047PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Valente EM, Abou-Sleiman PM, Caputo V, Muqit MM, Harvey K, Gispert S, Ali Z, Del Turco D, Bentivoglio AR, Healy DG, Albanese A, Nussbaum R, González-Maldonado R, Deller T, Salvi S, Cortelli P, Gilks WP, Latchman DS, Harvey RJ, Dallapiccola B, Auburger G, Wood NW (2004) Hereditary early-onset Parkinson's disease caused by mutations in PINK1. Science 304:1158–1160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhu S, Stavrovskaya IG, Drozda M, Kim BY, Ona V, Li M, Sarang S, Liu AS, Hartley DM, Wu du C, Gullans S, Ferrante RJ, Przedborski S, Kristal BS, Friedlander RM (2002) Minocycline inhibits cytochrome c release and delays progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in mice. Nature 417:74–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar