Journal of Neural Transmission

, Volume 115, Issue 3, pp 443–460 | Cite as

Bladder and bowel dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease

  • R. SakakibaraEmail author
  • T. Uchiyama
  • T. Yamanishi
  • K. Shirai
  • T. Hattori
Review Article


Bladder dysfunction (urinary urgency/frequency) and bowel dysfunction (constipation) are common non-motor disorders in Parkinson’s disease (PD). In contrast to motor disorder, the pelvic autonomic dysfunction is often non-responsive to levodopa treatment. Brain pathology mostly accounts for the bladder dysfunction (appearance of overactivity) via altered dopamine-basal ganglia circuit, which normally suppresses the micturition reflex. In contrast, peripheral enteric pathology mostly accounts for the bowel dysfunction (slow transit and decreased phasic contraction) via altered dopamine-enteric nervous system circuit, which normally promotes the peristaltic reflex. In addition, weak strain and paradoxical anal contraction might be the results of brain pathology. Pathophysiology of the pelvic organ dysfunction in PD differs from that in multiple system atrophy; therefore it might aid the differential diagnosis. Drugs to treat bladder dysfunction in PD include anticholinergic agents. Drugs to treat bowel dysfunction in PD include dietary fibers, peripheral dopaminergic antagonists, and selective serotonergic agonists. These treatments might be beneficial not only in maximizing patients’ quality of life, but also in promoting intestinal absorption of levodopa and avoiding gastrointestinal emergency.

Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; bladder dysfunction; bowel dysfunction; autonomic nervous system; dopamine 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbott, RD, Petrovitch, H, White, LR, Masaki, KH, Tanner, CM, Curb, JD, Grandinetti, A, Blanchette, PL, Popper, JS, Ross, GW 2001Frequency of bowel movements and the future risk of Parkinson’s diseaseNeurology57456462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abrams, P, Andersson, KE, Buccafusco, JJ, Chapple, C, de Groat, WC, Fryer, AD, Kay, G, Laties, A, Nathanson, NM, Pasricha, PJ, Wein, AJ 2006Muscarinic receptors: their distribution and function in body systems, and the implications for treating overactive bladderBr J Pharmacol148565578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Abrams, P Cardozo, L Fall, M Griffiths, D Rosier, P Ulmsten, U van Kerrebroeck, P Victor, A Wein, A Standardisation Sub-committee of the International Continence Society2002The standardization of terminology of lower urinary tract function: report from the standardization sub-committee of the International Continence SocietyNeurourol Urodynam21167178Google Scholar
  4. Albanese, A, Maria, G, Bentivoglio, A, Brisinda, G, Cassetta, E, Tonali, P 1997Severe constipation in Parkinson’s disease relieved by botulinum toxinMov Disord12764766PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Amborova, P, Hubka, P, Ulkova, I, Hulin, I 2003The pacemaker activity of interstitial cells of cajal and gastric electrical activityPhysiol Res52275284Google Scholar
  6. Andersson, KE 2000Treatment of overactive bladder: other drug mechanismsUrology555157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Andersson, KE 2004Mechanisms of disease: central nervous system involvement in overactive bladder syndromeNat Clin Pract Urol1103108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Anlauf, M, Schafer, MKH, Eiden, L, Weihe, E 2003Chemical coding of the human GI nervous system: cholinergic, VIPergic, and catecholaminergic phenotypesJ Comp Neurol45990111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Araki, I, Kitahara, M, Oida, T, Kuno, S 2000Voiding dysfunction and parkinson’s disease: urodynamic abnormalities and urinary symptomsJ Urol16416401643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Araki, I, Kuno, S 2000Assessment of voiding dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease by the international prostate symptom scoreJ Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry68429433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Aranda, B, Cramer, P 1993Effect of apomorphine and l-dopa on the parkinsonian bladderNeurourol Urodynam12203209Google Scholar
  12. Asai, H, Udaka, F, Hirano, M, Minami, T, Oda, M, Kubori, T, Nishinaka, K, Kameyama, M, Ueno, S 2005Increased gastric motility during 5-HT4 agonist therapy reduces response fluctuations in Parkinson’s diseaseParkinsonism Relat Disord11499502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ashraf, W, Pfeiffer, RF, Park, F, Lof, J, Quigley, EMM 1997Constipation in Parkinson’s disease; objective assessment and response to psylliumMov Disord12946951PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Ashraf, W, Wszolek, ZK, Pfeiffer, RF, Normand, M, Maurer, K, Srb, F, Edwards, LL, Quigley, EM 1995Anorectal function in fluctuating (on-off) Parkinson’s disease: evaluation by combined anorectal manometry and electromyographyMov Disord10650657PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Astarloa, R, Mena, MA, Sanchez, V, de la Vega, L, de Yebenes, JG 1992Clinical and pharmacological effects of a diet rich in insoluble fiber on Parkinson’s diseaseClin Neuropharmacol15375380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bagaev, V, Aleksandrov, V 2006Visceral-related area in the rat insular cortexAuton Neurosci1251621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Banach, T, Zurowski, D, Gil, K, Krygowska-Wajs, A, Marszalek, A, Thor, PJ 2006Peripheral mechanisms of intestinal dysmotility in rats with salsolinol induced experimental Parkinson’s diseaseJ Physiol Pharmacol57291300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bassotti, G, Maggio, D, Battaglia, E, Giulietti, O, Spinozzi, F, Reboldi, G, Serra, AM, Emanuelli, G, Chiarioni, G 2000Manometric investigation of anorectal function in early and late stage Parkinson’s diseaseJ Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry68768770PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bassotti, G, de Roberto, G, Castellani, D, Sediari, L, Morelli, A 2005Normal aspects of colorectal motility and abnormalities in slow transit constipationWorld J Gastroenterol1126912696PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bassotti, G, Villanacci, V 2006Slow transit constipation: a functional disorder becomes an enteric neuropathyWorld J Gastroenterol1246094613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Benson, GS, Raezer, DM, Anderson, JR, Saunders, CD, Corrierie, JN,Jr 1976Effect of levodopa on urinary bladderUrology72428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bermejo Pareja, F, Martinez-Martin, P, Muradas, V, de Yebenes, JG 1985Carbidopa dosage modifies L-dopa induced side effects and blood levels of L-dopa and other amino acids in advanced parkinsonismActa Neurol Scand72506511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Betts, CD, Kapoor, R, Fowler, CJ 1992Pontine pathology and voiding dysfunctionBr J Urol70100102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Blok, BF, de Weerd, H, Holstege, G 1997The pontine micturition center projects to sacral cord GABA immunoreactive neurons in the catNeurosci Lett233109112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Blok, BF, Holstege, G 1999The central control of micturition and continence: implications for urologyBr J Urol Int8316Google Scholar
  26. Bosshard, W, Dreher, R, Schnegg, JF, Bula, CJ 2004The treatment of chronic constipation in elderly people: an updateDrugs Aging21911930PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Braak, H, Rub, U, Del Tredici, K 2006Cognitive decline correlates with neuropathological stage in Parkinson’s diseaseJ Neurol Sci248255258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Broens, P, Vanbeckevoort, D, Bellon, E, Penninckx, F 2002Combined radiographic and manometric study of rectal filling sensationDis Colon Rectum4510161022PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Brusa, L, Petta, F, Pisani, A, Miano, R, Stanzione, P, Moschella, V, Galati, S, Agro, EF 2006Central acute D2 stimulation worsens bladder function in patients with mild Parkinson’s diseaseJ Urol175202206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Bueno, L, Gue, M, Fabre, C, Junien, JL 1992Involvement of central dopamine and D1 receptors in stress-induced colonic motor alterations in ratsBrain Res Bull29135140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cadeddu, F, Bentivoglio, AR, Brandara, F, Marniga, G, Brisinda, G, Maria, G 2005Outlet type constipation in Parkinson’s disease: results of botulinum toxin treatmentAliment Pharmacol Ther229971003PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Campos-Sousa, RN, Quagliato, E, da Silva, BB, De, CR,Jr, Ribeiro, SC, de Carvalho, DF 2003Urinary symptoms in Parkinson’s disease: prevalence and associated factorsArq Neuropsiquiatr61359363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Caplan, LH, Jacobson, HG, Rubinstein, BM, Rotman, MZ 1965Megacolon and volvulus in Parkinson’s diseaseRadiology857379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Chandiramani, VA, Palace, J, Fowler, CJ 1997How to recognize patients with parkinsonism who should not have urological surgeryBr J Urol80100104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Chaudhuri, KR Healy, DG Schapira, AHV National Institute for Clinical Excellence2006Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease: diagnosis and managementLancet Neurol5235245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Chia, YW, Gill, KP, Jameson, JS, Forti, AD, Henry, MM, Swash, M, Shorvon, PJ 1996Paradoxical puborectalis contraction is a feature of constipation in patients with multiple sclerosisJ Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry603135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Chiarioni, G, Heymen, S, Whitehead, WE 2006Biofeedback therapy for dyssynergic defecationWorld J Gastroenterol1270697074PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Christmas, TJ, Chapple, CR, Lees, AJ, Kempster, PA, Frankel, JP, Stern, GM 1998Role of subcutaneous apomorphine in parkinsonian voiding dysfunctionLancet2414511453Google Scholar
  39. Cooper, JR, Bloom, FE, Roth, RH 2003The biochemical basis of neuropharmacology, 8th edn. Chapter 9, DopamineOxford University PressOxford225270Google Scholar
  40. Couturier, D, Chaussade, S 1988Total and segmental colonic transit times. Measurements by radio-opaque markersPresse Med176973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Dalmose, AL, Bjarkam, CR, Sorensen, JC, Djurhuus, JC, Jorgensen, TM 2004Effects of high frequency deep brain stimulation on urine storage and voiding function in conscious minipigsNeurourol Urodyn23265272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Dantas, RO, Mamede, RC 2002Motility of the transverse colon used for esophageal replacementJ Clin Gastroenterol34225228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Davies, KN, King, D, Billington, D, Barrett, JA 1996Intestinal permeability and orocaecal transit time in elderly patients with Parkinson’s diseasePostgrad Med J72164167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. de Giorgio, R, Guerrini, S, Barbara, G, Cremon, C, Stanghellini, V, Corinaldesi, R 2004New insights into human enteric neuropathyNeurogastroenterol Motil16143147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. de Groat, WC 2006Integrative control of the lower urinary tract: preclinical perspectiveBJP147S25S40Google Scholar
  46. de Lorijn, F, de Jonge, WJ, Wedel, T, Vanderwinden, JM, Benninga, MA, Boeckxstaens, GE 2005Interstitial cells of Cajal are involved in the afferent limb of the rectoanal inhibitory reflexGut5411071113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Dive, A, Foret, F, Jamart, J, Bulpa, P, Installe, E 2000Effect of dopamine on GI motility during critical illnessIntensive Care Med26901907PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Djaldetti, R, Koren, M, Ziv, I, Achiron, A, Melamed, E 1995Effect of cisapride on response fluctuations in Parkinson’s diseaseMov Disord108184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Eaker, EY, Bixler, GB, Dunn, AJ, Moreshead, WV, Mathias, JR 1987Chronic alterations in jejunal myoelectric activity in rats due to MPTPAm J Physiol253809815Google Scholar
  50. Edwards, LL, Pfeiffer, RF, Quigley, EMM, Hofman, R, Balluff, M 1991GI symptoms in Parkinson’s diseaseMov Disord6151156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Edwards, LL, Quigley, EMM, Harned, RK, Hofman, R, Pfeiffer, RF 1993aDefecatory function in Parkinson’s disease; response to apomorphineAnn Neurol33490493Google Scholar
  52. Edwards, LL, Quigley, EMM, Hofman, R, Pfeiffer, RF 1993bGI symptoms in Parkinson disease: 18-month follow-up studyMov Disord88386Google Scholar
  53. Edwards, LL, Quigley, EMM, Harned, RK, Hofman, R, Pfeiffer, RF 1994Characterisation of swallowing and defecation in Parkinson’s diseaseAm J Gastroenterol891525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Eichhorn, TE, Oertel, WH 2001Macrogol 3350/electrolyte improves constipation in Parkinson’s disease and multiple system atrophyMov Disord1611761177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. El-Bahnasawy, MS, Osman, Y, Gomha, MA, Shaaban, AA 2005Persistent and occasional nocturnal enuresis in orthotopic urinary diversion: is there a urodynamic difference?BJU International961373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. El-Masu, MM, Elmallah, AI, Amal, G, Omar, AG, Sharabi, F 1999Dopamine modulates peripheral purinergic neurotransmission through multiple presynaptic receptors: tissue-dependent effectsPharmacol Res391119Google Scholar
  57. Fitzmaurice, H, Fowler, CJ, Rickards, D, Kirby, RS, Quinn, NP, Marsden, CD, Milroy, EJ, Turner-Warwick, RT 1985Micturition disturbance in Parkinson’s diseaseBr J Urol57652656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Fontana, GA, Pantaleo, T, Lavorini, F, Benvenuti, F, Gagemi, S 1998Defective motor control of coughing in Parkinson’s diseaseAm J Respir Crit Care Med158458464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Fowler, CJ 2006Integrated control of lower urinary tract: clinical perspectiveBJP147S14S24Google Scholar
  60. Frenckner, B, Ihre, T 1976Influence of autonomic nerves on the internal anal sphincter in manGut17306312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Gai, WP, Blessing, WW, Blumbergs, PC 1995Ubiquitinpositive degenerating neurites in the brainstem in Parkinson’s diseaseBrain11814471459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Gainetdinov, RR, Jones, SR, Fumagalli, F, Wightman, RM, Caron, MG 1998Re-evaluation of the role of the dopamine transporter in dopamine system homeostasisBrain Res Brain Res Rev26148153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Gibb, WR, Lees, AJ, Jenner, P, Marsden, CD 1986The dopamine neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) produces histological lesions in the hypothalamus of the common marmosetNeurosci Lett657983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Gilman, S, Low, PA, Quinn, N, Albanese, A, Ben-Shlomo, Y, Fowler, CJ, Kaufmann, H, Klockgether, T, Lang, AE, Lantos, PL, Litvan, I, Mathias, CJ, Oliver, E, Robertson, D, Schatz, I, Wenning, GK 1998Consensus statement on the diagnosis of multiple system atrophyJ Auton Nerv Syst74189192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Gravante, G, Sabatino, M, Sorbera, F, Ferraro, G, La Grutta, V 1985Effects of substantia nigra stimulation on electrical and mechanical activities of the duodeno-jejunal loop, in the catArch Int Physiol Biochim9393100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Gray, R, Stern, G, Malone-Lee, J 1995Lower urinary tract dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease: changes relate to age and not diseaseAge Ageing24499504PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Grider, JR, Foxx-Orenstein, AE, Jin, JG 19985-Hydroxytryptamine4 receptor agonists initiate the peristaltic reflex in human, rat, and guinea pig intestineGastroenterology115370380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Griffiths, D 1995Basics of pressure-flow studiesWorld J Urol133033PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Halliday, GM, Blumbergs, PC, Cotton, RG, Blessing, WW, Geffen, LB 1990Loss of brainstem serotonin- and substance P-containing neurons in Parkinson’s diseaseBrain Res510104107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Hansen, MB 2003Neurohumoral control of GI motilityPhysiol Res52130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Hashimoto, K, Oyama, T, Sugiyama, T, Park, YC, Kurita, T 2003Neuronal excitation in the ventral tegmental area modulates the micturition reflex mediated via the dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptors in ratsJ Pharmacol Sci92143148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Hashimoto, K, Oyama, T, Ukay, Y, Kimura, K, Sugiyama, T, Park, YC, Kurita, T 1997Selective destruction of dopamine neurones of the ventral tegmental area, but not the substantia nigra, impairs reflex micturition in ratsNeurourol Urodyn16470471Google Scholar
  73. Haskel, Y, Hanani, M 1994Inhibition of GI motility by MPTP via adrenergic and dopaminergic mechanismsDig Dis Sci3923642367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Hattori, T, Yasuda, K, Kita, K, Hirayama, K 1992Voiding dysfunction in Parkinson’s diseaseJpn J Psychiatry Neurol46181186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Hineno, T, Mizobuchi, M, Hiratani, K, Inami, Y, Kakimoto, Y 1992Disappearance of circadian rhythms in Parkinson’s disease model induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine in dogsBrain Res5809299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Hornykiewicz, O, Kish, SJ 1986Biochemical pathophysiology of Parkinson’s diseaseAdv Neurol451934Google Scholar
  77. Howard, LM, Markus, H 1992Pseudo-obstruction secondary to anticholinergic drugs in Parkinson’s diseasePostgrad Med J687071PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Iida, H, Inada, H, Tanaka, H, Nagasaka, T, Shindo, K, Shiozawa, Z 2002Effects of antiemetic drugs in combination with a dopamine receptor agonist, pergolide, on Parkinson’s disease; a comparison between domperidone and mosaprideNeurol Therapeutics195762Google Scholar
  79. Inui, A, Yoshikawa, T, Nagai, R, Yoshida, N, Ito, T 2002Effects of mosapride citrate, a 5-HT4 receptor agonist, on colonic motility in conscious guinea pigsJpn J Pharmacol90313320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Iscoe, S 1998Control of abdominal musclesProg Neurobiol56433506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Ishizuka, O, Mizusawa, H, Nishizawa, O 2002Roles of dopaminergic receptors in bladder and erectile function at the spinal levelAsian J Androl4287290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Ito, T, Sakakibara, R, Sakakibara, Y, Mori, M, Hattori, T 2004Medulla gutIntern Med431091PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Ito, T, Sakakibara, R, Uchiyama, T, Yamamoto, T, Liu, Z, Awa, Y, Hattori, T 2005The effect of milnaciplan hydrochloride on urge incontinence due to neurogenic diseasesJ Japan Neurogenic Bladder Society16208212in Japanese with English abstractGoogle Scholar
  84. Ito, T, Sakakibara, R, Nakazawa, K, Uchiyama, T, Yamamoto, T, Liu, Z, Shimizu, E, Hattori, T 2006aEffects of electrical stimulation of the raphe area on the micturition reflex in catsNeuroscience14212731280Google Scholar
  85. Ito, T, Sakakibara, R, Uchiyama, T, Liu, Z, Yamamoto, T, Hattori, T 2006bVideomanometry of the pelvic organs; a comparison of the normal lower urinary and GI tractsInt J Urol132935Google Scholar
  86. Iyer, SS, Morgan, JC, Sethi, KD 2005Absorption of orally disintegrating carbidopa-levodopa requires intact small bowel functionNeurology651507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Jing, H, Lin, KW, Mei, MH 1995Participation of dopamine on the muscarinergic inhibitory effect of substance P on gastric myoelectric activity and motilitySheng Li Xue Bao47245252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Jones, MP, Dilley, JB, Drossman, D, Crowell, MD 2006Brain gut connections in functional GI disorders: anatomic and physiologic relationshipsNeurogastroenterol Motil1891103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Jost, WH 2003Autonomic dysfunction in idiopathic Parkinson’s diseaseJ Neurol250I28I30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Jost, WH, Schimrigk, K 1991Constipation in Parkinson’s diseaseKlin Wochenschr69906909PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Jost, WH, Schimrigk, K 1997Long-term results with cisapride in Parkinson’s diseaseMov Disord12423425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Jost, WH, Schrank, B 1998Defecatory disorders in de novo Parkinsonians; colonic transit and electromyogram of the external anal sphincterWien Klin Wochenschr21535537Google Scholar
  93. Kamm, MA 1994Pelvic floor tests, Chapter 17Kamm, MALennard-Jones, JE eds. ConstipationWrightson Biomedical PublishingPetersfield145153Google Scholar
  94. Kanesaka, T, Sakakibara, R, Ito, S, Ito, T, Odaka, T, Yamaguchi, T, Uchiyama, T, Liu, Z, Yamamoto, T, Hattori, T 2006Intestinal pseudo-obstruction in acute myelitisIntern Med453536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Kavia, RBC, Dasgupta, R, Fowler, CJ 2005Functional imaging and the central control of the bladderJ Comp Neurol4932732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Kay, GG, Abou-Donia, MB, Messer, WS,Jr, Murphy, DG, Tsao, JW, Ouslander, JG 2005Antimuscarinic drugs for overactive bladder and their potential effects on cognitive function in older patientsJ Am Geriatr Soc5321952201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Kellow, JE, Delvaux, M, Azpiroz, F, Camilleri, M, Quigley, EMM, Thompson, DG 1999Principles of applied neurogastroenterology: physiology/motility-sensationGut451724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kitta, T, Kakizaki, H, Furuno, T, Moriya, K, Tanaka, H, Shiga, T, Tamaki, N, Yabe, N, Sasaki, H, Nonomura, K 2006Brain activation during detrusor overactivity in patients with parkinson’s disease: a PET studyJ Urol175994998PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Krogh, K, Mosdal, C, Laurberg, S 2000GI and segmental colonic transit times in patients with acute and chronic spinal cord lesionsSpinal Cord38615621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Kuno, S, Mizuta, E, Yamasaki, S, Araki, I 2004Effects of pergolide on nocturia in Parkinson fs disease: three female cases selected from over 400 patientsParkinsonism Related Disord10181187Google Scholar
  101. Kupsky, WJ, Grimes, MM, Sweeting, J, Bertsch, R, Cote, LJ 1987Parkinson’s disease and megacolon; concentric hyaline inclusions (Lewy bodies) in enteric ganglion cellsNeurology3712531255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Lanfranchi, GA, Bazzocchi, G, Fois, F, Brignola, C, Campieri, M, Menni, B 1985Effect of domperidone and dopamine on colonic motor activity in patients with the irritable bowel syndromeEur J Clin Pharmacol29307310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Langdon, N, Malcolm, PN, Parkes, JD 1986Comparison of levodopa with carbidopa, and levodopa with domperidone in Parkinson’s diseaseClin Neuropharmacol9440447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Lemack, GE, Dewey, RB, Roehrborn, CG, O’Suilleabhain, PE, Zimmern, PE 2000Questionnaire-based assessment of bladder dysfunction in patients with mild to moderate Parkinson’s diseaseUrology56250254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Levein, NG, Thorn, E, Lindberg, G, Wattwil, M 1999aDopamine reduces gastric tone in a dose-related mannerActa Anaesthesiol Scand43722725Google Scholar
  106. Levein, NG, Thorn, SE, Wattwil, M 1999bDopamine delays gastric emptying and prolongs orocaecal transit time in volunteersEur J Anaesthesiol16246250Google Scholar
  107. Lewitan, A, Nathanson, L, Slade, WR 1952Megacolon and dilatation of the small bowel in ParkinsonismGastroenterology17367374Google Scholar
  108. Li, ZS, Schmauss, C, Cuenca, A, Ratcliffe, E, Gershon, MD 2006Physiological modulation of intestinal motility by enteric dopaminergic neurons and the D2 receptor: analysis of dopamine receptor expression, location, development, and function in wild-type and knock-out miceJ Neurosci2627982807PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Liu, M, Geddis, MS, Wen, Y, Setlik, W, Gershon, MD 2005aExpression and function of 5-HT4 receptors in the mouse enteric nervous systemAm J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol289G1148G1163Google Scholar
  110. Liu, MT, Rayport, S, Jiang, L, Murphy, DL, Gershon, MD 2002Expression and function of 5-HT3 receptors in the enteric neurons of mice lacking the serotonin transporterAm J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol283G1398G1411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Liu, Z, Sakakibara, R, Nakazawa, K, Uchiyama, T, Yamamoto, T, Ito, T, Hattori, T 2004Micturition-related neuronal firing in the periaqueductal gray area in catsNeuroscience12610751082PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Liu, Z, Sakakibara, R, Odaka, T, Uchiyama, T, Yamamoto, T, Ito, T, Asahina, M, Yamaguchi, K, Yamaguchi, T, Hattori, T 2005bMosapride citrate, a novel 5-HT4 agonist and partial 5-HT3 antagonist, ameliorates constipation in parkinsonian patientsMov Disord20680686Google Scholar
  113. Lynch, AC, Frizelle, FA 2006Colorectal motility and defecation after spinal cord injury in humansProg Brain Res152335343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. MacDonald, A, Paterson, PJ, Baxter, JN, Finlay, IG 1993Relationship between intra-abdominal and intrarectal pressure in the proctometrogramBr J Surg8010701071PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Maganti, K, Onyemere, K, Jones, MP 2003Oral erythromycin and symptomatic relief of gastroparesis: a systematic reviewAm J Gastroenterol98259263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Magerkurth, C, Schnitzer, R, Braune, S 2005Symptoms of autonomic failure in Parkinson’s disease: prevalence and impact on daily lifeClin Auton Res157682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Marzio, L, Neri, M, Pieramico, O, Delle Donne, M, Peeters, TL, Cuccurullo, F 1990Dopamine interrupts GI fed motility pattern in humans. Effect on motilin and somatostatin blood levelsDig Dis Sci35327332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Mathers, SE, Kempster, PA, Law, PJ, Frankel, JP, Bartram, CI, Lees, AJ, Stern, GM, Swash, M 1989Anal sphincter dysfunction in Parkinson’s diseaseArch Neurol4610611064PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Matsumoto, G, Hisamitsu, T, De Groat, WC 1995Role of glutamate and NMDA receptors in the descending limb of the spinobulbospinal micturition reflex pathway of the ratNeurosci Lett1835861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Matsuura, S, Downie, JW, Allen, GV 1998Volume-evoked micturition reflex is mediated by the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray in anesthetized ratAm J Physiol275R2049R2055PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. McGrother, CW, Jagger, C, Clarke, M, Castleden, CM 1990Handicaps associated with incontinence: implications for managementJ Epidemiol Commun Health44246248Google Scholar
  122. McKeith, IG Dickson, DW Lowe, J Emre, M O’Brien, JT Feldman, H Cummings, J Duda, JE Lippa, C Perry, EK Aarsland, D Arai, H Ballard, CG Boeve, B Burn, DJ Costa, D Del Ser, T Dubois, B Galasko, D Gauthier, S Goetz, CG Gomez-Tortosa, E Halliday, G Hansen, LA Hardy, J Iwatsubo, T Kalaria, RN Kaufer, D Kenny, RA Korczyn, A Kosaka, K Lee, VM Lees, A Litvan, I Londos, E Lopez, OL Minoshima, S Mizuno, Y Molina, JA Mukaetova-Ladinska, EB Pasquier, F Perry, RH Schulz, JB Trojanowski, JQ Yamada, M Consortium on DLB2005Diagnosis and management of dementia with Lewy bodies: 3rd report of the DLB ConsortiumNeurology6518631872PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Murnaghan, GF 1961Neurogenic disorders of the bladder in ParkinsonismBr J Urol33403409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Nathan, PW, Smith, MC 1953Spinal pathways subserving defaecation and sensation from the lower bowelJ Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry16245256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Neira, WD, Sanchez, V, Mena, MA, de Yebenes, JG 1995The effects of cisapride on plasma L-dopa levels and clinical response in Parkinson’s diseaseMov Disord106670PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Nour, S, Svarer, C, Kristensen, JK, Paulson, OB, Law, I 2000Cerebral activation during micturition in normal menBrain123781789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Nout, YS, Leedy, GM, Michael, S, Beattie, MS, Bresnahan, JC 2005Alterations in eliminative and sexual reflexes after spinal cord injury: defecatory function and development of spasticity in pelvic floor musculatureProg Brain Res152359372Google Scholar
  128. Obeso, JA, Olanow, CW, Nutt, JG 2000Levodopa motor complications in Parkinson’s diseaseTrend Neurosci23S2S7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Oettle, GJ 1991Effect of moderate exercise on bowel habitGut32941944PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Park, JM, Bloom, DA, McGuire, EJ 1997The guarding reflex revisitedBr J Urol80940945PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Paviour, DC, Williams, D, Fowler, CJ, Quinn, NP, Lees, AJ 2005Is sphincter electromyography a helpful investigation in the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy? A retrospective study with pathological diagnosisMov Disord2014251430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Pavlakis, AJ, Siroky, MB, Goldstein, I, Krane, RJ 1983Neurourologic findings in Parkinson’s diseaseJ Urol1298083PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Pfeiffer, RF, Markopoulou, K, Quigley, EMM, Stambler, N, Cedarbaum, JM 2002Effect of NT-3 on bowel function in Parkinson’s diseaseMov Disord17223224Google Scholar
  134. Qualman, SJ, Haupt, HM, Yang, P, Hamilton, SR 1984Esophageal Lewy bodies associated with ganglion cell loss in achalasia. Similar to Parkinson’s diseaseGastroenterology87848856PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Read, NW, Haynes, WG, Bartolo, DCC, Hall, J, Read, MG, Donnelly, TC, Johnson, AG 1983Use of anorectal manometry during rectal infusion of saline to investigate sphincter function in incontinent patientsGastroenterology85105113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Read, NW, Timms, JM 1986Defecation and the pathophysiology of constipationClin Gastroenterol15937965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Resnick, NM, Yalla, SV 1987Detrusor hyperactivity with impaired contractile functionJAMA25730763081PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Roberfroid, MB 1997Health benefits of non-digestible oligosaccharidesAdv Exp Med Biol427211219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Robson, KM, Kiely, DK, Lembo, T 2000Development of constipation in nursing home residentsDis Colon Rectum43940943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Rosenthal, MJ, Marshall, CE 1987Sigmoid volvulus in association with parkinsonism. Report of four casesJ Am Geriatr Soc35683684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Sadjadpour, K 1983Pyridostigmine bromide and constipation in Parkinson’s diseaseJAMA2491148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Sakakibara, R, Hattori, T, Yasuda, K, Yamanishi, T 1996Micturitional disturbance and pontine tegmental lesion; urodynamic and MRI analyses of the vascular casesJ Neurol Sci141105110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Sakakibara, R, Hattori, T, Yasuda, K, Yamanishi, T, Tojo, M, Mori, M 1997aMicturitional disturbance in Wernicke’s encephalopathyNeurourol Urodynam16111115Google Scholar
  144. Sakakibara, R, Mori, M, Fukutake, T, Kita, K 1997bOrthostatic hypotension in a case with multiple sclerosisClin Auton Res7163165Google Scholar
  145. Sakakibara, R, Hattori, T, Uchiyama, T, Yamanishi, T 1999Urinary function in the elderly with and without leukoaraiosis; in relation to cognitive and gait functionJ Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry67658660PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Sakakibara, R, Fowler, CJ 2001Brain disease, Chapter 9Fowler, CJ eds. Seminars in clinical neurology (by World Federation of Neurology)ElsevierBoston229243Google Scholar
  147. Sakakibara, R, Hattori, T, Uchiyama, T, Yamanishi, T 2001aVideourodynamic and sphincter motor unit potential analyses in Parkinson’s disease and multiple system atrophyJ Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry71600606Google Scholar
  148. Sakakibara, R, Shinotoh, H, Uchiyama, T, Sakuma, M, Kashiwado, M, Yoshiyama, M, Hattori, T 2001bQuestionnaire-based assessment of pelvic organ dysfunction in Parkinson’s diseaseAuton Neurosci927685Google Scholar
  149. Sakakibara, R, Shinotoh, H, Uchiyama, T, Yoshiyama, M, Hattori, T, Yamanishi, T 2001cSPECT imaging of the dopamine transporter with [123I]-beta-CIT reveals marked decline of nigrostriatal dopaminergic function in Parkinson’s disease with urinary dysfunctionJ Neurol Sci1875559Google Scholar
  150. Sakakibara R, Uchiyama T, Hattori T, Yamanishi T (2001d) Urodynamic evaluation in Parkinson’s disease before and after levodopa treatment. 9th Int. Catechecholamine Symposium, Kyoto, JapanGoogle Scholar
  151. Sakakibara, R, Nakazawa, K, Shiba, K, Nakajima, Y, Uchiyama, T, Yoshiyama, M, Yamanishi, T, Hattori, T 2002aFiring patterns of micturition-related neurons in the pontine storage centre in catsAuton Neurosci992430Google Scholar
  152. Sakakibara, R, Nakazawa, K, Uchiyama, T, Yoshiyama, M, Yamanishi, T, Hattori, T 2002bMicturition-related electrophysiological properties in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the ventral tegmental area in catsAuton Neurosci1023038Google Scholar
  153. Sakakibara, R, Nakazawa, K, Uchiyama, T, Yoshiyama, M, Yamanishi, T, Hattori, T 2003aEffects of subthalamic nucleus stimulation on the micturation reflex in catsNeuroscience120871875Google Scholar
  154. Sakakibara, R, Odaka, T, Uchiyama, T, Asahina, M, Yamaguchi, K, Yamaguchi, T, Yamanishi, T, Hattori, T 2003bColonic transit time and rectoanal videomanometry in Parkinson’s diseaseJ Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry74268272Google Scholar
  155. Sakakibara, R, Ito, T, Uchiyama, T, Asahina, M, Liu, Z, Yamamoto, T, Yamanaka, Y, Hattori, T 2005Lower urinary tract function in dementia of Lewy body type (DLB)J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry76729732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Sakakibara, R, Yamaguchi, T, Uchiyama, T, Liu, Z, Yamamoto, T, Ito, T, Odaka, T, Hattori, T 2006aCalcium polycarbophil improves constipation in non-traumatic spinal cord disordersClin Auton Res16289292Google Scholar
  157. Sakakibara R, Yamaguchi T, Uchiyama T, Yamamoto T, Ito T, Liu Z, Odaka T, Yamaguchi C, Hattori T (2006b) Calcium polycarbophil improves constipation in primary autonomic failure and multiple system atrophy subjects. Mov Disord (Epub ahead of print)Google Scholar
  158. Sandyk, R, Gillman, MA 1984Colchicine ameliorates constipation in Parkinson’s diseaseJ R Soc Med771066PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Sasaki, M 2005Role of Barrington’s nucleus in micturitionJ Comp Neurol4932126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Scheife, R, Takeda, M 2005Central nervous system safety of anticholinergic drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder in the elderlyClin Ther27144153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Seki, S, Igawa, Y, Kaidoh, K, Ishizuka, O, Nishizawa, O, Andersson, KE 2001Role of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the micturition reflex in conscious ratsNeurourol Urodyn20105113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Sempere, AP, Duarte, J, Cabezas, C, Claveria, LE, Coria, F 1995Aggravation of parkinsonian tremor by cisaprideClin Neuropharmacol187678PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Shimada, J, Sakakibara, R, Uchiyama, T, Liu, Z, Yamamoto, T, Ito, T, Mori, M, Asahina, M, Hattori, T 2006Intestinal pseudo-obstruction and neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a case of parkinsonian patient with chronic constipationEur J Neurol13306312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Shindler, JS, Finnerty, GT, Towlson, K, Dolan, AL, Davies, CL, Parkes, JD 1984Domperidone and levodopa in Parkinson’s diseaseBr J Clin Pharmacol18959962PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Siddiqui, MF, Rast, S, Lynn, MJ, Auchus, AP, Pfeiffer, RF 2002Autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease: a comprehensive symptom surveyParkinsonism Relat Disord8277284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Singaram, C, Ashraf, W, Gaumnitz, EA, Torbey, C, Sengupta, A, Pfeiffer, R, Quigley, EM 1995Dopaminergic defect of enteric nervous system in Parkinson’s disease patients with chronic constipationLancet346861864PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Singer, C, Weiner, WJ, Sanchez-Ramos, JR 1992Autonomic dysfunction in men with Parkinson’s diseaseEur Neurol32134140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Smith, Y, Bevan, MD, Shink, E, Bolam, JP 1998Microcircuitry of the direct and indirect pathways of the basal gangliaNeuroscience86353387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Soykan, I, Sarosiek, I, Shifflett, J, Wooten, GF, McCallum, W 1997Effect of chronic oral domperidone therapy on GI symptoms and gastric emptying in patients with Parkinson’s diseaseMov Disord12952957PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Steers, WD 2002Pathophysiology of overactive and urge urinary incontinenceRev Urol4S7S18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Stocchi, F, Carbone, A, Inghilleri, M, Monge, A, Ruggieri, S, Berardelli, A, Manfredi, M 1997Urodynamic and neurophysiological evaluation in Parkinson’s disease and multiple system atrophyJ Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry62507511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Suchowersky, O, Furtado, S, Rohs, G 1995Beneficial effect of intranasal desmopressin for nocturnal polyuria in Parkinson’s diseaseMov Disord10337340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Sullivan, KL, Staffetti, JF, Hauser, RA, Dunne, PB, Zesiewicz, TA 2006Tegaserod (Zelnorm) for the treatment of constipation in Parkinson’s diseaseMov Disord21115116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Takeda, S, Yamazaki, K, Miyakawa, T, Arai, H 1993Parkinson’s disease with involvement of the parasympathetic gangliaActa Neuropathol (Berl)86397398Google Scholar
  175. Tanaka, T, VanKlompenberg, LH, Sarr, MG 2001Selective role of vagal and nonvagal innervation in initiation and coordination of gastric and small bowel patterns of interdigestive and postprandial motilityJ Gastrointest Surg5418433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Thorpe, AC, Roberts, JP, Williams, NS, Blandy, JP, Badenoch, DF 1995Pelvic floor physiology in women with fecal incontinence and urinary symptomsBr J Surg82173176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Todorova, A, Vonderheid-Guth, B, Dimpfel, W 2001Effects of tolterodine, trospium chloride, and oxybutynin on the central nervous systemJ Clin Pharmacol41636644PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Tonini, M 1996Recent advances in the pharmacology of GI prokineticsPharmacol Res33217226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Tonini, M 20055-Hydroxytryptamine effects in the gut: the 3, 4, and 7 receptorsNeurogastroenterol Motil17637642PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Towers, AL, Burgio, KL, Locher, JL, Merkel, IS, Safaeian, M, Wald, A 1994Constipation in the elderly: influence of dietary, psychological, and physiological factorsJ Am Geriatr Soc42701716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Tuteja, AK, Talley, NJ, Joos, SK, Woehl, JV, Hickam, DH 2005Is constipation associated with decreased physical activity in normally active subjects?Am J Gastroenterol100124129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Uchiyama, T, Sakakibara, R, Hattori, T 2006Lower urinary tract dysfunctions of Parkinson’s disease model rat (6-hydroxydopamine treated rat) and effects of drugsAutonom Nerv Syst43302308in Japanese, review with clinical dataGoogle Scholar
  183. Uchiyama, T, Sakakibara, R, Hattori, T, Yamanishi, T 2003Short-term effect of a single levodopa dose on micturition disturbance in Parkinson’s disease patients with the wearing-off phenomenonMov Disord18573578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Ueki, A, Otsuka, M 2004Life style risks of Parkinson’s disease: association between decreased water intake and constipationJ Neurol2511823Google Scholar
  185. Valentino, RJ, Kosboth, M, Colflesh, M, Miselis, RR 2000Transneuronal labeling from the rat distal colon: anatomic evidence for regulation of distal colon function by a pontine corticotropin-releasing factor systemJ Comp Neurol417399414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Vaughan, CJ, Aherne, AM, Lane, E, Power, O, Carey, RM, O’Connell, DP 2000Identification and regional distribution of the dopamine D1A receptor in the GI tractAm J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol279R599R609Google Scholar
  187. Wakabayashi, K, Takahachi, H, Ohama, E, Ikuta, F 1990Parkinson’s disease: an immunohistochemical study of Lewy body-containing neurons in the enteric nervous systemActa Neuropathol79581583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Wakabayashi, K, Takahashi, H 1997Neuropathology of autonomic nervous system in Parkinson’s diseaseEur Neurol3827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Walker, JK, Gainetdinov, RR, Mangel, AW, Caron, MG, Shetzline, MA 2000Mice lacking the dopamine transporter display altered regulation of distal colonic motilityAm J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol279G311G318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Wang, SJ, Fuh, JL, Shan, DE, Liao, KK, Lin, KP, Tsai, CP, Wu, ZA 1993Sympathetic skin response and R-R interval variation in Parkinson’s diseaseMov Disord8151157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Weber, J, Denis, P, Mihout, B, Muller, JM, Blanquart, F, Galmiche, JP, Simon, P, Pasquis, P 1985Effect of brain-stem lesion on colonic and anorectal motility. Study of three patientsDig Dis Sci30419425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Wein, AJ, Rackley, RR 2006Overactive bladder: a better understanding of pathophysiology, diagnosis and managementJ Urol175S5S10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Wiley, J, Owyang, C 1987Dopaminergic modulation of rectosigmoid motility: action of domperidoneJ Pharmacol Exp Ther242548551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Wiley, JW 2002Aging and neural control of the GI tract III. Senescent enteric nervous system: lessons from extraintestinal sites and nonmammalian speciesAm J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol46G1020G1026Google Scholar
  195. Winge, K, Friberg, L, Werdelin, L, Nielsen, KK, Stimpel, H 2005Relationship between nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration, urinary symptoms, and bladder control in Parkinson’s diseaseEur J Neurol12842850PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Winge, K, Werdelin, LM, Nielsen, KK, Stimpel, H 2004Effects of dopaminergic treatment on bladder function in Parkinson’s diseaseNeurourol Urodyn23689696PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Wood, JR, Camilleri, M, Low, PA, Malagelada, JR 1985Brainstem tumor presenting as an upper gut motility disorderGastroenterology8914111414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Yaguchi, H, Soma, H, Miyazaki, Y, Tashiro, J, Yabe, I, Kikuchi, S, Sasaki, H, Kakizaki, H, Moriwaka, F, Tashiro, K 2004A case of acute urinary retention caused by periaqueductal grey lesionJ Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry7512021203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Yamamoto, M 1997Pergolide improves neurogenic bladder in patients with Parkinson’s diseaseMov Disord12328Google Scholar
  200. Yamamoto, T, Sakakibara, R, Hashimoto, K, Nakazawa, K, Uchiyama, T, Liu, Z, Ito, T, Hattori, T 2005Striatal dopamine level increases in the urinary storage phase in cats: an in vivo microdialysis studyNeuroscience135299303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Yamamoto, T, Sakakibara, R, Uchiyama, T, Liu, Z, Ito, T, Awa, Y, Yamanishi, T, Hattori, T 2006Neurological diseases that cause detrusor hyperactivity with impaired contractile functionNeurourol Urodynam25356360Google Scholar
  202. Yokoyama, O, Yoshiyama, M, Namiki, M, de Groat, WC 2002Changes in dopaminergic and glutamatergic excitatory mechanisms of micturition reflex after middle cerebral artery occlusion in conscious ratsExp Neurol173129135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Yokoyama, O, Yotsuyanagi, S, Akino, H, Moriyama, H, Matsuta, Y, Namiki, M 2003RNA synthesis in pons necessary for maintenance of bladder overactivity after cerebral infarction in ratJ Urol16918781884PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Yokoyama, T, Hasegawa, I 2007Ileus in Parkinson’s diseaseNeurol Med66611Google Scholar
  205. Yoshimura, N, Kuno, S, Chancellor, MB, de Groat, WC, Seki, S 2003Dopaminergic mechanisms underlying bladder hyperactivity in rats with a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion of the nigrostriatal pathwayBr J Pharmacol13914251432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Yoshimura, N, Mizuta, E, Yoshida, O, Kuno, S 1998Therapeutic effects of dopamine D1/D2 receptor agonists on detrusor hyperreflexia in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine- lesioned parkinsonian cynomolgus monkeysJ Pharmacol Exp Therapeutics286228233Google Scholar
  207. Yoshimura, N, Sasa, M, Yoshida, O, Takaori, S 1992Dopamine D-1 receptor mediated inhibition of micturition reflex by central dopamine from the substantia nigraNeurourol Urodyn11535545Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Sakakibara
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • T. Uchiyama
    • 2
  • T. Yamanishi
    • 3
  • K. Shirai
    • 1
  • T. Hattori
    • 2
  1. 1.Sakura Medical Center, Neurology Division, Department of Internal MedicineToho UniversitySakuraJapan
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyChiba UniversityChibaJapan
  3. 3.Department of UrologyDokkyo Medical CollegeTochigiJapan

Personalised recommendations