Journal of Neural Transmission

, Volume 115, Issue 4, pp 585–591 | Cite as

Botulinum toxin in the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm

  • C. KenneyEmail author
  • J. Jankovic


Blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm are the two most common craniofacial movement disorders. Blepharospasm is a syndrome characterized by excessive or continuous eye closure related to overactivity of the orbicularis oculi and adjacent muscles bilaterally. Hemifacial spasm is a peripherally-induced movement disorder typically caused by vascular compression of cranial nerve VII (CN VII) leading to involuntary unilateral contractions of muscles used in facial expression. Treatment options for both conditions include medications, botulinum toxin, and various surgical interventions. This article summarizes the existing medical literature which indicates that botulinum toxin is the treatment of choice for blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm.

Keywords: Botulinum toxin; blepharospasm; hemifacial spasm 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Parkinson’s Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic, Department of NeurologyBaylor College of MedicineHoustonU.S.A.

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