Journal of Neural Transmission

, 114:1167 | Cite as

Cross-sectional study discloses a positive family history for Parkinson’s disease and male gender as epidemiological risk factors for substantia nigra hyperechogenicity

  • K. J. Schweitzer
  • S. Behnke
  • I. Liepelt
  • B. Wolf
  • C. Grosser
  • J. Godau
  • A. Gaenslen
  • T. Bruessel
  • A. Wendt
  • F. Abel
  • A. Müller
  • T. Gasser
  • D. Berg
Article

Summary

Hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN) has been proposed to be a typical finding in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and a marker of vulnerability to nigrostriatal dysfunction in healthy subjects. This large cross-sectional study including 1120 subjects older than 50 years without any signs of PD was performed to evaluate the association of SN hyperechogenicity and other proposed epidemiological risk factors for PD. Among all variables assessed only family history of PD and male gender proved to be significantly associated with SN hyperechogenicity, indicating a genetic predisposition for the ultrasound marker.

Keywords: Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity, vulnerability marker, Parkinson’s disease, genetic predisposition 

References

  1. Allam, MF, Del Castillo, AS, Navajas, RF 2005Parkinson’s disease risk factors: genetic, environmental, or both?Neurol Res27206208CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Baldereschi, M, Di Carlo, A, Vanni, P, Ghetti, A, Carbonin, P, Amaducci, L,  et al. 2003Lifestyle-related risk factors for Parkinson’s disease: a population-based studyActa Neurol Scand108239244CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bandopadhyay, R, Kingsbury, AE, Cookson, MR, Reid, AR, Evans, IM, Hope, AD,  et al. 2004The expression of DJ-1 (PARK7) in normal human CNS and idiopathic Parkinson’s diseaseBrain127420430CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Becker, G, Muller, A, Braune, S, Buttner, T, Benecke, R, Greulich, W,  et al. 2002Early diagnosis of Parkinson’s diseaseJ Neurol249III/40III/48Google Scholar
  5. Behnke, S, Double, KL, Duma, S, Broe, GA, Guenther, V, Becker, G, Halliday, GM 2007Substantia nigra echomorphology in the healthy very old: Correlation with motor slowingNeuroimage3410541059CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Benito-Leon, J, Bermejo-Pareja, F, Morales-Gonzalez, JM, Porta-Etessam, J, Trincado, R, Vega, S,  et al. 2004Incidence of Parkinson disease and parkinsonism in three elderly populations of central SpainNeurology62734741PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Berg, D 2006aMarker for a preclinical diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease as a basis for neuroprotectionJ Neural Transm71110Google Scholar
  8. Berg, D 2006bTranscranial sonography in the early and differential diagnosis of Parkinson’s diseaseJ Neural Transm70249254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berg, D, Becker, G 2002Perspectives of B-mode transcranial ultrasoundNeuroimage15463473CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Berg, D, Becker, G, Zeiler, B, Tucha, O, Hofmann, E, Preier, M,  et al. 1999Vulnerability of the nigrostriatal system as detected by transcranial ultrasoundNeurology5310261031PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Berg, D, Merz, B, Reiners, K, Naumann, M, Becker, G 2005Five-year follow-up study of hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra in Parkinson’s diseaseMov Disord20383385CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Berg, D, Roggendorf, W, Schroder, U, Klein, R, Tatschner, T, Benz, P,  et al. 2002Echogenicity of the substantia nigra: association with increased iron content and marker for susceptibility to nigrostriatal injuryArch Neurol599991005CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Berg, D, Siefker, C, Becker, G 2001Echogenicity of the substantia nigra in Parkinson’s disease and its relation to clinical findingsJ Neurol248684689CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bower, JH, Maraganore, DM, McDonnell, SK, Rocca, WA 1999Incidence and distribution of parkinsonism in Olmstead County, Minnesota, 1976–1990Neurology5212141220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. de Lau, LM, Breteler, MM 2006Epidemiology of Parkinson’s diseaseLancet Neurol5525535CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. de Rijk, MC, Tzourio, C, Breteler, MM, Dartigues, JF, Amaducci, L, Lopez-Pousa, S,  et al. 1997Prevalence of parkinsonism and Parkinson’s disease in Europe: the EUROPARKINSON Collaborative Study. European Community Concerted Action on the Epidemiology of Parkinson’s diseaseJ Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry621015CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Fall, PA, Axelson, O, Frederiksson, M, Hansson, G, Lindvall, B, Olsson, JE,  et al. 1996Age-standardized incidence and prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in a Swedish communityJ Clin Epidemiol49637647CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Fearnley, JM, Lees, AJ 1991Ageing and Parkinson’s disease: substantia nigra regional selectivityBrain11422832301CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Golbe, LI 1990The genetics of Parkinson’s disease: a reconsiderationNeurology40714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Gorell, JM, Peterson, EL, Rybicki, BA, Johnson, CC 2004Multiple risk factors for Parkinson’s diseaseJ Neurol Sci217169174CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hubble, JP, Cao, T, Hassanein, RE, Neuberger, JS, Koller, WC 1993Risk factors for Parkinson’s diseaseNeurology4316931697PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Iova, A, Garmashov, A, Androuchtchenko, N, Kehrer, M, Berg, D, Becker, G,  et al. 2004Postnatal decrease in substantia nigra echogenicity. Implications for the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s diseaseJ Neurol25114511454CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Koller, WC 1992When does Parkinson’s disease begin?Neurology422731PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Lyons, KE, Hubble, JP, Troster, AI, Pahwa, R, Koller, WC 1998Gender differences in Parkinson’s diseaseClin Neuropharmacol21118121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Marder, K, Levy, G, Louis, ED, Mejia-Santana, H, Cote, L, Andrews, H,  et al. 2003Familial aggregation of early- and late-onset Parkinson’s diseaseAnn Neurol54507513CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Mindham, RH 1970Psychiatric symptoms in ParkinsonismJ Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry33188191CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Robins, AH 1976Depression in patients with ParkinsonismBr J Psychiatry128141145CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Rocca, WA, McDonnell, SK, Strain, KJ, Bower, JH, Ahlskog, JE, Elbaz, A,  et al. 2004Familial aggregation of Parkinson’s disease: The Mayo Clinic family studyAnn Neurol56495502CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Ruprecht-Dorfler, P, Berg, D, Tucha, O, Benz, P, Meier-Meitinger, M, Alders, GL,  et al. 2003Echogenicity of the substantia nigra in relatives of patients with sporadic Parkinson’s diseaseNeuroimage18416422CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Santamaria, J, Tolosa, E, Valles, A 1986Parkinson’s disease with depression: a possible subgroup of idiopathic parkinsonismNeurology3611301133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Saunders-Pullmann, R 2003Estrogens and Parkinson disease: neuroprotective, symptomatic, neither or both?Endocrine218187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sawada, H, Shimohama, S 2003Estrogens and Parkinson disease: novel approach for neuroprotectionEndocrine217779CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Schrag, A, Ben-Shlomo, Y, Quinn, NP 2000Cross sectional prevalence survey of ideopathic Parkinson’s disease and parkinsonism in LondonBMJ3212122CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Spiegel, J, Hellwig, D, Mollers, MO, Behnke, S, Jost, W, Fassbender, K,  et al. 2006Transcranial sonography and [123I]FP-CIT SPECT disclose complementary aspects of Parkinson’s diseaseBrain12911881193CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Van den Eeden, SK, Tanner, CM, Bernstein, L, Fross, RD, Leimpeter, A, Bloch, DA,  et al. 2003Incidence of Parkinson’s disease: variation by age, gender and race/ethnicityAm J Epidemiol15710151023CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Walter, U, Klein, C, Hilker, R, Benecke, R, Pramstaller, PP, Dressler, D 2004Brain parenchyma sonography detects preclinical parkinsonismMov Disord1914451449CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Walter, U, Wittstock, M, Benecke, R, Dressler, D 2002Substantia nigra echogenicity is normal in non-extrapyramidal cerebral disorders but increased in Parkinson’s diseaseJ Neural Transm109191196CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Zecca, L, Berg, D, Arzberger, T, Ruprecht, P, Rausch, WD, Musicco, M,  et al. 2005In vivo detection of iron and neuromelanin by transcranial sonography: a new approach for early detection of substantia nigra damageMov Disord2012781285CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Zecca, L, Youdim, MB, Riederer, P, Connor, JR, Crichton, RR 2004Iron, brain ageing and neurodegenerative disordersNat Rev Neurosci5863873CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. J. Schweitzer
    • 1
  • S. Behnke
    • 2
  • I. Liepelt
    • 1
  • B. Wolf
    • 1
  • C. Grosser
    • 2
  • J. Godau
    • 1
  • A. Gaenslen
    • 1
  • T. Bruessel
    • 1
  • A. Wendt
    • 1
  • F. Abel
    • 2
  • A. Müller
    • 2
  • T. Gasser
    • 1
  • D. Berg
    • 1
  1. 1.Center of Neurology, Department of Neurodegeneration, Hertie Institute of Clinical Brain ResearchUniversity of TübingenTübingenGermany
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyUniversity of Homburg/SaarHomburg/SaarGermany

Personalised recommendations