Journal of Neural Transmission

, Volume 114, Issue 1, pp 93–104 | Cite as

Receptor–receptor interactions involving adenosine A1 or dopamine D1 receptors and accessory proteins

  • R. Franco
  • C. Lluis
  • E. I. Canela
  • J. Mallol
  • L. Agnati
  • V. Casadó
  • F. Ciruela
  • S. Ferré
  • K. Fuxe


The molecular basis for the known intramembrane receptor–receptor interactions among heptahelical receptors (G protein coupled receptors, GPCR) was postulated to be heteromerization based on receptor subtype specific interactions between different types of homomers of GPCR. Adenosine and dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia have been fundamental to demonstrate the existence of receptor heteromers and the functional consequences of such molecular interactions. The heterodimer is only one type of heteromeric complex and the evidence is equally compatible with the existence of higher order heteromeric complexes, where also adapter proteins such as homer proteins and scaffolding proteins can exist, assisting in the process of linking the GPCR and ion channel receptors together in a receptor mosaic that may have special integrative value and may constitute the molecular basis for learning and memory. Heteromerization of D2 dopamine and A2A adenosine receptors is reviewed by Fuxe in another article in this special issue. Here, heteromerization between D1 dopamine and A1 adenosine receptors is reviewed. Heteromers formed by dopamine D1 and D2 receptors and by adenosine A1 and A2A receptors also occur in striatal cells and open new perspectives to understand why two receptors with apparently opposite effects are expressed in the same neuron and in the nerve terminals. The role of accessory proteins also capable of interacting with receptor–receptor heteromers in regulating the traffic and the molecular physiology of these receptors is also discussed. Overall, the knowledge of the reason why such complex networks of receptor–receptor and receptor–protein interactions occur in striatal cells is crucial to develop new strategies to combat neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases.

Keywords: Adenosine deaminase, hsc73, clustering parkinson, caveolin 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Franco
    • 1
  • C. Lluis
    • 1
  • E. I. Canela
    • 1
  • J. Mallol
    • 1
  • L. Agnati
    • 2
  • V. Casadó
    • 1
  • F. Ciruela
    • 1
  • S. Ferré
    • 3
  • K. Fuxe
    • 4
  1. 1.Molecular Neurobiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, IDIBAPS (Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer)Universitat de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical SciencesUniversity of ModenaModenaItaly
  3. 3.Intramural Research Program, NIH, Department of Health and Human ServicesNational Institute on Drug AbuseBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.Department of NeuroscienceKarolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden

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