Restoration of periventricular vasculature after direct bypass for moyamoya disease: intra-individual comparison
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While periventricular anastomosis, a unique abnormal vasculature in moyamoya disease, has been studied in relation to intracranial hemorrhage, no study has addressed its change after bypass surgery. The authors sought to test whether direct bypass surgery could restore normal periventricular vasculature.
Patients who had undergone direct bypass surgery for moyamoya disease at a single institution were eligible for the study. Baseline, postoperative, and follow-up magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) scans were scheduled before surgery, after the first surgery, and 3 to 6 months after contralateral second surgery, respectively. Sliding-thin-slab maximum-intensity-projection coronal MRA images of periventricular anastomoses were scored according to the three subtypes (lenticulostriate, thalamic, and choroidal anastomosis). Baseline and postoperative MRA images were compared to obtain a matched comparison of score changes in the surgical and nonsurgical hemispheres within individuals (intra-individual comparison).
Of 110 patients, 42 were identified for intra-individual comparisons. The periventricular anastomosis score decreased significantly in the surgical hemispheres (median, 2 versus 1; p < 0.001), whereas the score remained unchanged in the nonsurgical hemispheres (median, 2 versus 2; p = 0.57); the score change varied significantly between the surgical and nonsurgical hemispheres (p < 0.001). Of the 104 periventricular-anastomosis-positive hemispheres undergoing surgery, 47 (45.2%) were assessed as negative in the follow-up MRA. Among the subtypes, choroidal anastomosis was most likely to be assessed as negative (79.7% of positive hemispheres).
Periventricular vasculature can be restored after direct bypass. The likelihood of correction of choroidal anastomosis is a subject requiring further studies.
KeywordsMoyamoya disease Intracranial hemorrhage Cerebral revascularization Periventricular anastomosis
Middle cerebral artery
Magnetic resonance angiography
Posterior cerebral artery
Single photon emission tomography
Superficial temporal artery
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. For this type of study, formal consent is not required.
All subjects gave opt-out consent.
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