Long-term outcome of trans-sphenoidal surgery for Cushing’s disease in Indian patients
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The results of trans-sphenoidal surgery (TSS) in Cushing’s disease (CD) vary widely depending upon patient characteristics as well as surgical experience. Patients in India are often referred late to referral centers. We studied the rates of remission and endocrine deficiencies after TSS in patients with CD presenting to a referral hospital in India.
Sixty consecutive patients (45 females, median age 24.5 years) who underwent TSS between 2000 and 2015 were studied. The median (range) duration of follow-up was 40 (3–138) months. Initial and long-term remission and relapse rates and pituitary hypofunction post-TSS were evaluated.
Eighteen (30%) patients harbored macroadenomas. Twenty-eight (47%) patients achieved remission in the immediate post-operative period (8 AM serum cortisol < 140 nmol/l), while a higher remission rate was noted at 6 months (39/54 patients, 72%). At 1 year 70% patients and at final follow-up [median duration 40 (range 3–138) months], 58% of patients were in remission. No pre- or post-surgical variables were consistently associated with remission, except for the 8-AM serum cortisol level on the fifth day after surgery. Seven (18%) patients relapsed on follow-up, including five patients who had fifth post-operative day 8 AM serum cortisol < 140 nmol/l. Twelve (25%) patients newly developed hypothyroidism and one (1.6%) patient developed amenorrhoea after TSS.
Remission rate at 6 months was higher than immediately after TSS. A significant proportion of patients relapsed, thus necessitating life-long follow-up. New-onset hypothyroidism was frequent after TSS.
KeywordsCushing’s disease Trans-sphenoidal surgery Remission Relapse
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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