Acta Neurochirurgica

, Volume 159, Issue 11, pp 2161–2168 | Cite as

Multistep translation and cultural adaptation of the Penn acoustic neuroma quality-of-life scale for German-speaking patients

  • Julia Kristin
  • Marcel Fabian Glaas
  • Igor Stenin
  • Angelika Albrecht
  • Thomas Klenzner
  • Jörg Schipper
  • Katrin Eysel-Gosepath
Original Article - Brain Tumors



Monitoring the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS) has garnered increasing interest. In German-speaking countries, there is no disease-specific questionnaire available similar to the “Penn Acoustic Neuroma Quality-of-life Scale” (PANQOL).


We translated the PANQOL for German-speaking patients based on a multistep protocol that included not only a forward-backward translation but also linguistic and sociocultural adaptations. The process consists of translation, synthesis, back translation, review by an expert committee, administration of the prefinal version to our patients, submission and appraisal of all written documents by our research team. The required multidisciplinary team for translation comprised head and neck surgeons, language professionals (German and English), a professional translator, and bilingual participants. A total of 123 patients with VS underwent microsurgical procedures via different approaches at our clinic between January 2007 and January 2017. Among these, 72 patients who underwent the translabyrinthine approach participated in the testing of the German-translated PANQOL.


The first German version of the PANQOL questionnaire was created by a multistep translation process. The responses indicate that the questionnaire is simple to administer and applicable to our patients.


The use of a multistep process to translate quality-of-life questionnaires is complex and time-consuming. However, this process was performed properly and resulted in a version of the PANQOL for assessing the quality of life of German-speaking patients with VS.


PANQOL Vestibular schwannoma Translation process German version 



Thanks to our additional specialists in the expert committee:

Mrs. Alexandra Mulcahy, Mr. Michael Jack (MD), Mrs. Anja Eger, Mrs. Hanna Laritz, and Mrs. Vera Eckstein.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OtorhinolaryngologyDuesseldorf University HospitalDuesseldorfGermany

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