Sagittal spinal alignment in asymptomatic patients over 30 years old in the Korean population
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We aim to provide sagittal and pelvic parameters according to different age groups in an asymptomatic population all over 30 years old and to investigate the possible causes of changes in these parameters.
Whole-spine, standing lateral radiographs were taken in 128 asymptomatic Korean people over 30 years old. The spinal parameters (the total thoracic kyphosis (TTK), maximal lumbar lordosis (MLL), total lumbar lordosis (TLL), lower lumbar lordosis (LLL), thoracolumbar junctional angle (TLJA), and lumbar inclination (LI)), pelvic parameters (pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), and pelvic tilt (PT)), and spinal balance parameters (spinal balance, sacropelvic balance, and spinopelvic balance) were measured. The body mass index, body protein mass, waist line, skeletal muscle mass, and body fat mass were also measured for potential causes.
TTK and TLJA were significantly increased in the group over 70 years of age compared to the other age groups (p = 0.0002, <0.001). TLL was significantly decreased in the group over 70 years of age (p = 0.002), whereas the PI values were similar to PI even in over 70-year age group. LLL did not differ in the group over 70 years of age (p = 0.29), gradually increasing with an increase in age. SS was significantly decreased and PT was significantly increased in the group over 70 years of age as compared to the other age groups (p = 0.049, 0.049, respectively). PI was similar in all age groups (p = 0.75). Spinal balance was significantly decreased in the group over 70 years of age (p = <0.0001). PT was significantly associated with body protein mass and skeletal muscle mass (p = 0.01, 0.001, respectively). Body protein mass and skeletal muscle mass were significantly lower in the group over 70 years of age (p = 0.02, 0.02) and were possible causes.
Several sagittal and pelvic parameters are different in asymptomatic adults over 70 years of age. Decreased body protein mass and skeletal muscle mass are possible causes of these changes.
KeywordsSagittal balance Spinal alignment Sacral slope Adult spine Normal patterns
Compliance with ethical standards
The authors have no personal financial or institutional interest in any of the drugs, materials, or devices described in this article.
The Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea provided financial support in the form of a grant of the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI) (grant number: HI16C1559). The sponsor had no role in the design or conduct of this research.
Conflict of interest
All authors certify that they have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest (such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers’ bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; and expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements), or non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, knowledge or beliefs) in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. For this type of study formal consent is not required.
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