Acta Neurochirurgica

, Volume 157, Issue 7, pp 1147–1154 | Cite as

Analysis of disruptive events and precarious situations caused by interaction with neurosurgical microscope

  • Shahram Eivazi
  • Hoorieh Afkari
  • Roman Bednarik
  • Ville Leinonen
  • Markku Tukiainen
  • Juha E. Jääskeläinen
Experimental Research - NeurosurgeryTraining



Developments in micro-neurosurgical microscopes have improved operating precision and ensured the quality of outcomes. Using the stereoscopic magnified view, however, necessitates frequent manual adjustments to the microscope during an operation.


This article reports on an investigation of the interaction details concerning a state-of-the-art micro-neurosurgical microscope. The video data from detailed observations of neurosurgeons’ interaction patterns with the microscope were analysed to examine disruptive events caused by adjusting the microscope.


The primary findings show that interruptions caused by adjusting the microscope handgrips and mouth switch prolong the surgery time up to 10 %. Surgeons, we observed, avoid interaction with the microscope’s controls, settings, and configurations by working at the edge of the view, operating on a non-focused view, and assuming unergonomic body postures.


The lack of an automatic method for adjusting the microscope is a major problem that causes interruptions during micro-neurosurgery. From this understanding of disruptive events, we discuss the opportunities and limitations of interactive technologies that aim to reduce the frequency or shorten the duration of interruptions caused by microscope adjustment.


Medical practice Microscope use in the OR Interruption Interaction with microscope Micro-neurosurgery 


Conflicts of interest

All authors certify that they have NO affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest (such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers’ bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; and expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements), or non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, knowledge or beliefs) in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shahram Eivazi
    • 1
  • Hoorieh Afkari
    • 1
  • Roman Bednarik
    • 1
  • Ville Leinonen
    • 2
  • Markku Tukiainen
    • 1
  • Juha E. Jääskeläinen
    • 2
  1. 1.School of ComputingUniversity of Eastern FinlandJoensuuFinland
  2. 2.Neurosurgery of KUH NeuroCenterKuopio University Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Eastern FinlandKuopioFinland

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