Acta Neurochirurgica

, Volume 154, Issue 1, pp 105–111 | Cite as

Long-term cognitive dysfunction in patients with traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage: prevalence and risk factors

  • George Kwok Chu WongEmail author
  • Karine Ngai
  • Adrian Wong
  • Sandy Wai Lam
  • Vincent C. T. Mok
  • Janice Yeung
  • Timothy Rainer
  • Rosanna Wong
  • Wai Sang Poon
Clinical Article



Cognition had recently been suggested as a supplement to traditional measures of neurological outcome. However, no data were available in the literature on long-term cognitive outcomes in patients with traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH).


We explored the long-term cognitive profiles of patients with tSAH who had returned to the community, and the risk factors associated with this event.


Patients with tSAH were contacted to obtain their consent to participate in the study of cognitive profiles and outcome. Forty-seven (42%) of 111 eligible patients completed all the assessments.


Time from ictus to assessment ranged from 3 to 5 years. No difference in patient characteristics was observed between those who participated and those who did not. In patients with tSAH who had returned to the community, domain deficits and cognitive impairment were correlated with the extended Glasgow outcome scale (GOS-E), and were predicted by age and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) on admission. The accuracies of classifications were 79% and 81%, respectively. The number of domain deficits was also correlated with GOS-E, and was predicted by age, GCS on admission, and the extent of tSAH, with a total R 2 value of 50%.


Long-term cognitive dysfunction is common after tSAH. In addition to GCS on admission and follow-up GOS-E, the extent of tSAH is an independent risk factor for the number of cognitive domain deficits that occur.


Subarachnoid hemorrhage Traumatic brain injury Cognitive impairment 



This study was supported by the Research and Training Fund for Neurosurgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • George Kwok Chu Wong
    • 1
    • 5
    Email author
  • Karine Ngai
    • 1
  • Adrian Wong
    • 2
  • Sandy Wai Lam
    • 1
  • Vincent C. T. Mok
    • 2
  • Janice Yeung
    • 3
  • Timothy Rainer
    • 3
  • Rosanna Wong
    • 4
  • Wai Sang Poon
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of NeurosurgeryThe Chinese University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  2. 2.Division of NeurologyThe Chinese University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  3. 3.Accident and Emergency Medicine Academic UnitThe Chinese University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  4. 4.Department of Occupational TherapyPrince of Wales HospitalHong KongChina
  5. 5.4/F Clinical Science Building, Department of SurgeryPrince of Wales HospitalShatin, New TerritoriesChina

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