Acta Neurochirurgica

, Volume 151, Issue 7, pp 785–794 | Cite as

Long-term implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes in the pontine micturition centre of the Göttingen minipig

  • Kristian N. Jensen
  • Dorthe Deding
  • Jens Christian Sørensen
  • Carsten R. Bjarkam
Experimental Research



To implant deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes in the porcine pontine micturition centre (PMC) in order to establish a large animal model of PMC-DBS.


Brainstems from four Göttingen minipigs were sectioned coronally into 40-μm-thick histological sections and stained with Nissl, autometallographic myelin stain, tyrosin hydroxylase and corticotrophin-releasing factor immunohistochemistry in order to identify the porcine PMC. DBS electrodes were then stereotaxically implanted on the right side into the PMC in four Göttingen minipigs, and the bladder response to electrical stimulation was evaluated by subsequent cystometry performed immediately after the operation and several weeks later.


A paired CRF-dense area homologous to the PMC in other species was encountered in the rostral pontine tegmentum medial to the locus coeruleus and ventral to the floor of the fourth ventricle. Electrical stimulation of the CRF-dense area resulted in an increased detrusor pressure followed by visible voiding in some instances. The pigs were allowed to survive between 14 and 55 days, and electrical stimulation resulting in an increased detrusor pressure was performed on more than one occasion without affecting consciousness or general thriving. None of the pigs developed postoperative infections or died prematurely.


DBS electrodes can be implanted for several weeks in the indentified CRF-dense area resulting in a useful large animal model for basic research on micturition and the future clinical use of this treatment modality in neurogenic suprapontine voiding disorders.


Anatomy Cystometry Neuromodulation Stereotaxy Suprapontine neurogenic bladder dysfunction 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kristian N. Jensen
    • 1
    • 3
  • Dorthe Deding
    • 2
  • Jens Christian Sørensen
    • 3
  • Carsten R. Bjarkam
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurobiology, Institute of AnatomyUniversity of AarhusAarhus CDenmark
  2. 2.Institute of Clinical Experimental ResearchUniversity of AarhusAarhus NDenmark
  3. 3.Department of NeurosurgeryAarhus University HospitalAarhus CDenmark

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