Acta Neurochirurgica

, Volume 148, Issue 4, pp 375–387 | Cite as

Vascular injury and complication in neurosurgical spine surgery

  • J. Inamasu
  • B. H. Guiot
Review Article


Vascular injury is an uncommon, but not rare complication of spine surgery. The consequence of vascular injury may be quite devastating, but its incidence can be reduced by understanding the mechanisms of injury. Properly managing vascular injury can reduce mortality and morbidity of patients. A review of the literature was conducted to provide an update on the etiology and management of vascular injury and complication in neurosurgical spine surgery. The vascular injuries were categorized according to each surgical procedure responsible for the injury, i.e., anterior screw fixation of the odontoid fracture, anterior cervical spine surgery, posterior C1–2 arthrodesis, posterior cervical spine surgery, anterolateral approach for thoracolumbar spine fracture, posterior thoracic spine surgery, scoliosis surgery, anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), lumbar disc arthroplasty, lumbar discectomy, and posterior lumbar spine surgery. The incidence, mechanisms of injury, and reparative measures were discussed for each surgical procedure. Detailed coverage was especially given to vascular injury associated with ALIF, which may have been underestimated. The accumulation of anatomical knowledge and advanced imaging studies has made complex spine surgery safer and more reliable. It is not clear, however, whether the incidence of vascular injury has been reduced significantly in all procedures of spine surgery. Emerging new techniques, such as microendoscopic discectomy and lumbar disc arthroplasty, seem to be promising, but we need to keep in mind their safety issues, including vascular injury and complication.

Keywords: Complication; iatrogenic; injury; spine; surgery; vascular. 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abumi, K, Shono, Y, Ito, M, Taneichi, H, Kotani, Y, Kaneda, K 2000Complications of pedicle screw fixation in reconstructive surgery of the cervical spine.Spine25962969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Akagi, S, Yoshida, Y, Kato, I, Sasai, K, Saito, T, Imamura, A, Ogawa, R 1999External iliac artery occlusion in posterior spinal surgery.Spine24823825CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Arand, M, Lemke, M, Kinzl, L, Hartwig, E 2001[Incidence of complications of the screw osteosynthesis of odontoid process fractures].Zentralbl Chir126610615[Article in German]CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aydinli, U, Ozturk, C, Saba, D, Ersozlu, S 2004Neglected major vessel injury after anterior spinal surgery: a case report.Spine29E318E320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baker, JK, Reardon, PR, Reardon, MJ, Heggeness, MH 1993Vascular injury in anterior lumbar surgery.Spine1822272230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bergey, DL, Villavicencio, AT, Goldstein, T, Regan, JJ 2004Endoscopic lateral transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine.Spine2916811688PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bianchi, C, Ballard, JL, Abou-Zamzam, AM, Teruya, TH, Abu-Assal, ML 2003Anterior retroperitoneal lumbosacral spine exposure: operative technique and results.Ann Vasc Surg17137142CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bierdrager, E, Van Rooij, WJ, Sluzewski, M 2004Emergency stenting to control massive bleeding of injured iliac artery following lumbar disk surgery.Neuroradiology46404406CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bingol, H, Cingoz, F, Yilmaz, AT, Yasar, M, Tatar, H 2004Vascular complications related to lumbar disc surgery.J Neurosurg Spine100249253Google Scholar
  10. Bolger, C, Wigfield, C 2000Image-guided surgery: applications to the cervical and thoracic spine and a review of the first 120 procedures.J Neurosurg Spine92175180Google Scholar
  11. Brau, SA 2002Mini-open approach to the spine for anterior lumbar interbody fusion: description of the procedure, results and complications.Spine J2216223CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Brau, SA, Delamarter, RB, Schiffman, ML, Williams, LA, Watkins, RG 2004Left iliac artery thrombosis during anterior lumbar surgery.Ann Vasc Surg184851PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brau, SA, Delamarter, RB, Schiffman, ML, Williams, LA, Watkins, RG 2004Vascular injury during anterior lumbar surgery.Spine J4409412CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Burke, JP, Gerszten, PC, Welch, WC 2002Iatrogenic vertebral artery injury during anterior cervical spine surgery.Spine J25SGoogle Scholar
  15. Carl, AL, Kostuik, J, Huckell, CB, Abitbol, JJ, Matsumoto, M, Sieber, A 2003Surgeon perceptions of the complications and value of threaded fusion cages as a spine fusion technique: results of a consensus survey.Spine J3356359CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Chozick, BS, Watson, P, Greenblatt, SH 1994Internal carotid artery thrombosis after cervical corpectomy.Spine1922302232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Chung, SK, Lee, SH, Lim, SR, Kim, DY, Jang, JS, Nam, KS, Lee, HY 2003Comparative study of laparoscopic L5–S1 fusion versus open mini-ALIF, with a minimum 2-year follow-up.Eur Spine J12613617CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Coric, D, Branch, CL,Jr, Wilson, JA, Robinson, JC 1996Arteriovenous fistula as a complication of C1–2 transarticular screw fixation. Case report and review of the literature.J Neurosurg85340343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cosgrove, GR, Theron, J 1987Vertebral arteriovenous fistula following anterior cervical spine surgery. Report of two cases.J Neurosurg66297299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cowles, RA, Taheri, PA, Sweeney, JF, Graziano, GP 2000Efficacy of the laparoscopic approach for anterior lumbar spinal fusion.Surgery128589596CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Currier, BL, Todd, LT, Maus, TP, Fisher, DR, Yaszemski, MJ 2003Anatomic relationship of the internal carotid artery to the C1 vertebra: a case report of cervical reconstruction for chordoma and pilot study to assess the risk of screw fixation of the atlas.Spine28E461E467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Curylo, LJ, Mason, HC, Bohlman, HH, Yoo, JU 2000Tortuous course of the vertebral artery and anterior cervical decompression: a cadaveric and clinical case study.Spine2528602864PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Daentzer, D, Deinsberger, W, Boker, DK 2003Vertebral artery complications in anterior approaches to the cervical spine: report of two cases and review of literature.Surg Neurol59300309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Dearborn, JT, Hu, SS, Tribus, CB, Bradford, DS 1999Thromboembolic complications after major thoracolumbar spine surgery.Spine2414711476CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Deen, HG, Birch, BD, Wharen, RE, Reimer, R 2003Lateral mass screw-rod fixation of the cervical spine: a prospective clinical series with 1-year follow-up.Spine J3489495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Derincek, A, Wood, KB, Muench, CA 2004Superior mesenteric artery syndrome following correction of kyphosis in an adult.J Spinal Disord Tech17549553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. DeSaussure, RL 1959Vascular injury coincident to disc surgery.J Neurosurg16222229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. El Masry, MA, Badawy, WS, Rajendran, P, Chan, D 2004Combined anterior interbody fusion and posterior pedicle screw fixation in patients with degenerative lumbar disc disease.Int Orthop28294297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Epstein, NE 2003From the neurointerventional lab … intraoperative cervical vertebral artery injury treated by tamponade and endovascular coiling.Spine J3404405CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Escobar, E, Transfeldt, E, Garvey, T, Ogilvie, J, Graber, J, Schultz, L 2003Video-assisted versus open anterior lumbar spine fusion surgery: a comparison of four techniques and complications in 135 patients.Spine28729732CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Faciszewski, T, Winter, RB, Lonstein, JE, Denis, F, Johnson, L 1995The surgical and medical perioperative complications of anterior spinal fusion surgery in the thoracic and lumbar spine in adults. A review of 1223 procedures.Spine2015921599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Floch, NR, Harvey, JC, Beattie, EJ,Jr 1995Aortoesophageal fistula after reconstruction of the thoracic spine.Ann Thorac Surg60191192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Fritzell, P Hagg, O Nordwall, A Swedish Lumbar Spine Study Group2003Complications in lumbar fusion surgery for chronic low back pain: comparison of three surgical techniques used in a prospective randomized study. A report from the Swedish Lumbar Spine Study Group.Eur Spine J12178189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Fruhwirth, J, Koch, G, Amann, W, Hauser, H, Flaschka, G 1996Vascular complications of lumbar disc surgery.Acta Neurochir (Wien)138912916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Geerdes, BP, Geukers, CW, van Erp, WF 2001Laparoscopic spinal fusion of L4–L5 and L5–S1.Surg Endosc1513081312CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Gluf, WM, Schmidt, MH, Apfelbaum, RI 2005Atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation: a review of surgical indications, fusion rate, complications, and lessons learned in 191 adult patients.J Neurosurg Spine2155163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Golfinos, JG, Dickman, CA, Zabramski, JM, Sonntag, VK, Spetzler, RF 1994Repair of vertebral artery injury during anterior cervical decompression.Spine1925522556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Goodkin, R, Laska, LL 1998Vascular and visceral injuries associated with lumbar disc surgery: medicolegal implications.Surg Neurol49358370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Guyer, RD, McAfee, PC, Hochschuler, SH, Blumenthal, SL, Fedder, IL, Ohnmeiss, DD, Cunningham, BW 2004Prospective randomized study of the Charite artificial disc: data from two investigational centers.Spine J4252S259SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hackenberg, L, Liljenqvist, U, Halm, H, Winkelmann, W 2001Occlusion of the left common iliac artery and consecutive thromboembolism of the left popliteal artery following anterior lumbar interbody fusion.J Spinal Disord14365368CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Harmon, PH 1964A simplified surgical technic for anterior lumbar diskectomy and fusion; avoidance of complications; anatomy of the retroperitoneal veins.Clin Orthop Relat Res37130144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Harms, J, Melcher, RP 2001Posterior C1–C2 fusion with polyaxial screw and rod fixation.Spine2624672471CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Harrington, JF,Jr 2001Far lateral disc excision at L5–S1 complicated by iliolumbar artery incursion: case report.Neurosurgery4813771380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Heary, RF, Albert, TJ, Ludwig, SC, Vaccaro, AR, Wolansky, LJ, Leddy, TP, Schmidt, RR 1996Surgical anatomy of the vertebral arteries.Spine2120742080CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Holt, RT, Majd, ME, Vadhva, M, Castro, FP 2003The efficacy of anterior spine exposure by an orthopedic surgeon.J Spinal Disord Tech16477486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Inamasu, J, Kim, DH, Logan, L 2005Three-dimensional computed tomography anatomy of the abdominal great vessels pertinent to L4–L5 anterior lumbar interbody fusion.Minim Invasive Neurosurg48127131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Jasani, V, Jaffray, D 2002The anatomy of the iliolumbar vein. A cadaver study.J Bone Joint Surg Br8410461049PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Jendrisak, MD 1986Spontaneous abdominal aortic rupture from erosion by a lumbar spine fixation device: a case report.Surgery99631633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Jenis, LG, Leclair, WJ 1994Late vascular complication with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion.Spine1912911293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kaiser, MG, Haid, RW,Jr, Subach, BR, Miller, JS, Smith, CD, Rodts, GE,Jr 2002Comparison of the mini-open versus laparoscopic approach for anterior lumbar interbody fusion: a retrospective review.Neurosurgery5197105CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kaneda, K, Taneichi, H, Abumi, K, Hashimoto, T, Satoh, S, Fujiya, M 1997Anterior decompression and stabilization with the Kaneda device for thoracolumbar burst fractures associated with neurological deficits.J Bone Joint Surg Am796983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Khan, HG, Didier, D, Otten, P, Fransen, P 1996Retroperitoneal bleeding after L4–L5 diskectomy in a patient with crossed-fused renal ectopia: treatment by selective embolization.Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol19348351CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Khazim, R, Boos, N, Webb, JK 1998Progressive thrombotic occlusion of the left common iliac artery after anterior lumbar interbody fusion.Eur Spine J7239241CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Khoo, LT, Beisse, R, Potulski, M 2002Thoracoscopic-assisted treatment of thoracic and lumbar fractures: a series of 371 consecutive cases.Neurosurgery51S104S117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Knoop, M, Kroger, JC, Schulz, K, Ascher, PW, Schareck, W, Witter, K, Hoppner, J 1999[Diagnosis and management of an intraoperative vertebral artery injury].Chirurg70789794[Article in German]PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Knop, C, Bastian, L, Lange, U, Oeser, M, Zdichavsky, M, Blauth, M 2002Complications in surgical treatment of thoracolumbar injuries.Eur Spine J11214226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kotani, Y, Abumi, K, Ito, M, Minami, A 2003Improved accuracy of computer-assisted cervical pedicle screw insertion.J Neurosurg Spine99257263Google Scholar
  58. Kozak, JA, Heilman, AE, O’Brien, JP 1994Anterior lumbar fusion options. Technique and graft materials.Clin Orthop Relat Res3004551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kulkarni, SS, Lowery, GL, Ross, RE, Ravi Sankar, K, Lykomitros, V 2003Arterial complications following anterior lumbar interbody fusion: report of eight cases.Eur Spine J124854PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Kuslich, SD, Ulstrom, CL, Griffith, SL, Ahern, JW, Dowdle, JD 1998The Bagby and Kuslich method of lumbar interbody fusion. History, techniques, and 2-year follow-up results of a United States prospective, multicenter trial.Spine2312671278CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kwon, TW, Sung, KB, Cho, YP, Kim, DK, Ko, GY, Yoon, HK, Kim, GE 2003Large vessel injury following operation for a herniated lumbar disc.Ann Vasc Surg17438444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lange, M, Fink, U, Philipp, A, Oeckler, R 2002Emergency diagnosis with spiral CT angiography in case of suspected ventral perforation following lumbar disc surgery.Surg Neurol571519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lee, SH, Choi, WG, Lim, SR, Kang, HY, Shin, SW 2004Minimally invasive anterior lumbar interbody fusion followed by percutaneous pedicle screw fixation for isthmic spondylolisthesis.Spine J4644649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Leung, YL, Grevitt, M, Henderson, L, Smith, J 2005Cord monitoring changes and segmental vessel ligation in the “at risk” cord during anterior spinal deformity surgery.Spine3018701874CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Lim, KE, Fan, KF, Wong, YC, Hsu, YY 1999Iatrogenic upper abdominal aortic injury with pseudoaneurysm during spinal surgery.J Trauma46729731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Liu, JC, Ondra, SL, Angelos, P, Ganju, A, Landers, ML 2002Is laparoscopic anterior lumbar interbody fusion a useful minimally invasive procedure?Neurosurgery51S155S158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lu, J, Ebraheim, NA, Georgiadis, GM, Yang, H, Yeasting, RA 1998Anatomic considerations of the vertebral artery: implications for anterior decompression of the cervical spine.J Spinal Disord11233236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Madawi, AA, Casey, AT, Solanki, GA, Tuite, G, Veres, R, Crockard, HA 1997Radiological and anatomical evaluation of the atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation technique.J Neurosurg86961968PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Mahvi, DM, Zdeblick, TA 1996A prospective study of laparoscopic spinal fusion. Technique and operative complications.Ann Surg2248590CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Marsicano, J, Mirovsky, Y, Remer, S, Bloom, N, Neuwirth, M 1994Thrombotic occlusion of the left common iliac artery after an anterior retroperitoneal approach to the lumbar spine.Spine19357359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Matsuzaki, H, Tokuhashi, Y, Wakabayashi, K, Kitamura, S 1993Penetration of a screw into the thoracic aorta in anterior spinal instrumentation. A case report.Spine1823272331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Mayer, HM, Wiechert, K 2002Microsurgical anterior approaches to the lumbar spine for interbody fusion and total disc replacement.Neurosurgery51S159S165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Mayer, HM 2003Comment to “Arterial complications following anterior lumbar interbody fusion: report of eight cases”, by S. S. Kulkarni et al. Eur Spine J125556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. McAfee, PC 1994Complications of anterior approaches to the thoracolumbar spine. Emphasis on Kaneda instrumentation.Clin Orthop Relat Res306110119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Minor, ME, Morrissey, NJ, Peress, R, Carroccio, A, Ellozy, S, Agarwal, G, Teodorescu, V, Hollier, LH, Marin, ML 2004Endovascular treatment of an iatrogenic thoracic aortic injury after spinal instrumentation: case report.J Vasc Surg39893896CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Neo, M, Matsushita, M, Iwashita, Y, Yasuda, T, Sakamoto, T, Nakamura, T 2003Atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation for a high-riding vertebral artery.Spine28666670CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Neo, M, Matsushita, M, Morita, T, Nakamura, T 2000Pseudoaneurysm of the deep circumflex iliac artery: a rare complication at an anterior iliac bone graft donor site.Spine2518481851CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. O’Brien, MF, Peterson, D, Crockard, HA 1995A posterolateral microsurgical approach to extreme-lateral lumbar disc herniation.J Neurosurg83636640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Ohnishi, T, Neo, M, Matsushita, M, Komeda, M, Koyama, T, Nakamura, T 2001Delayed aortic rupture caused by an implanted anterior spinal device. Case report.J Neurosurg Spine95253256Google Scholar
  80. Orchowski J, Bridwell KH, Lenke LG (2005) Neurological deficit from a purely vascular etiology after unilateral vessel ligation during anterior thoracolumbar fusion of the spine 30: 406–410Google Scholar
  81. Oskouian, RJ,Jr, Johnson, JP 2002Vascular complications in anterior thoracolumbar spinal reconstruction.J Neurosurg Spine9615Google Scholar
  82. Papadoulas, S, Konstantinou, D, Kourea, HP, Kritikos, N, Haftouras, N, Tsolakis, JA 2002Vascular injury complicating lumbar disc surgery. A systematic review.Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg24189195CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Paramore, CG, Dickman, CA, Sonntag, VK 1996The anatomical suitability of the C1–2 complex for transarticular screw fixation.J Neurosurg85221224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Perez-Cruet, MJ, Foley, KT, Isaacs, RE, Rice-Wyllie, L, Wellington, R, Smith, MM, Fessler, RG 2002Microendoscopic lumbar discectomy: technical note.Neurosurgery51S129S136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Pfeifer, BA, Freidberg, SR, Jewell, ER 1994Repair of injured vertebral artery in anterior cervical procedures.Spine1914711474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Prabhu, VC, France, JC, Voelker, JL, Zoarski, GH 2001Vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm complicating posterior C1–2 transarticular screw fixation: case report.Surg Neurol55329334Google Scholar
  87. Priestley, R, Bray, P, Bray, A, Hunter, J 2003Iatrogenic vertebral arteriovenous fistula treated with a hemobahn stent-graft.J Endovasc Ther10657663CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Rajaraman, V, Vingan, R, Roth, P, Heary, RF, Conklin, L, Jacobs, GB 1999Visceral and vascular complications resulting from anterior lumbar interbody fusion.J Neurosurg Spine916064Google Scholar
  89. Rampersaud, YR, Pik, JH, Salonen, D, Farooq, S 2005Clinical accuracy of fluoroscopic computer-assisted pedicle screw fixation: a CT analysis.Spine30E183E190CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Raskas, DS, Delamarter, RB 1997Occlusion of the left iliac artery after retroperitoneal exposure of the spine.Clin Orthop Relat Res3388689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Regan, JJ, Aronoff, RJ, Ohnmeiss, DD, Sengupta, DK 1999Laparoscopic approach to L4–L5 for interbody fusion using BAK cages: experience in the first 58 cases.Spine2421712174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Regan, JJ, Yuan, H, McAfee, PC 1999Laparoscopic fusion of the lumbar spine: minimally invasive spine surgery. A prospective multicenter study evaluating open and laparoscopic lumbar fusion.Spine24402411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Richter, M, Mattes, T, Cakir, B 2004Computer-assisted posterior instrumentation of the cervical and cervico-thoracic spine.Eur Spine J135059CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Rodriguez, HE, Connolly, MM, Dracopoulos, H, Geisler, FH, Podbielski, FJ 2002Anterior access to the lumbar spine: laparoscopic versus open.Am Surg68978983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Saraph, V, Lerch, C, Walochnik, N, Bach, CM, Krismer, M, Wimmer, C 2004Comparison of conventional versus minimally invasive extraperitoneal approach for anterior lumbar interbody fusion.Eur Spine J13425431CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Sasso, RC, Kitchel, SH, Dawson, EG 2004A prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial of anterior lumbar interbody fusion using a titanium cylindrical threaded fusion device.Spine29113122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Sasso, RC, Best, NM, Mummaneni, PV, Reilly, TM, Hussain, SM 2005Analysis of operative complications in a series of 471 anterior lumbar interbody fusion procedures.Spine30670674CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Schweighofer, F, Passler, JM, Wildburger, R, Hofer, HP 1992Interbody fusion of the lower cervical spine: a dangerous surgical method?Langenbecks Arch Chir377295259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Seybold, EA, Baker, JA, Criscitiello, AA, Ordway, NR, Park, CK, Connolly, PJ 1999Characteristics of unicortical and bicortical lateral mass screws in the cervical spine.Spine2423972403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Shapiro, SA, Snyder, W 1997Spinal instrumentation with a low complication rate.Surg Neurol48566574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Shen, FH, Samartzis, D, Khanna, N, Goldberg, EJ, An, HS 2004Comparison of clinical and radiographic outcome in instrumented anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with or without direct uncovertebral joint decompression.Spine J4629635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Smith, DW, Lawrence, BD 1991Vascular complications of lumbar decompression laminectomy and foraminotomy. A unique case and review of the literature.Spine16387390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Smith, MD, Emery, SE, Dudley, A, Murray, KJ, Leventhal, M 1993Vertebral artery injury during anterior decompression of the cervical spine. A retrospective review of ten patients.J Bone Joint Surg Br75410415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Smith, MD, Bressler, EL, Lonstein, JE, Winter, R, Pinto, MR, Denis, F 1994Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism after major reconstructive operations on the spine. A prospective analysis of three hundred and seventeen patients.J Bone Joint Surg Am76980985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Smythe, WR, Carpenter, JP 1997Upper abdominal aortic injury during spinal surgery.J Vasc Surg25774777CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Song, GS, Theodore, N, Dickman, CA, Sonntag, VK 1997Unilateral posterior atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation.J Neurosurg87851855PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Tessitore, E, de Tribolet, N 2004Far-lateral lumbar disc herniation: the microsurgical transmuscular approach.Neurosurgery54939942PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Tetzlaff, JE, Yoon, HJ, Bell, G 1998Massive bleeding during spine surgery in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis.Can J Anaesth45903906PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Tiusanen, H, Seitsalo, S, Osterman, K, Soini, J 1996Anterior interbody lumbar fusion in severe low back pain.Clin Orthop Relat Res324153163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Tsai, YD, Yu, PC, Lee, TC, Chen, HS, Wang, SH, Kuo, YL 2001Superior rectal artery injury following lumbar disc surgery. Case report.J Neurosurg Spine95108110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Tsirikos, AI, Jeans, LA 2005Superior mesenteric artery syndrome in children and adolescents with spine deformities undergoing corrective surgery.J Spinal Disord Tech18263271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Tumialan, LM, Wippold, FJ,2nd, Morgan, RA 2004Tortuous vertebral artery injury complicating anterior cervical spinal fusion in a symptomatic rheumatoid cervical spine.Spine29E343E348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Vaccaro, AR, Ring, D, Scuderi, G, Garfin, SR 1994Vertebral artery location in relation to the vertebral body as determined by two-dimensional computed tomography evaluation.Spine1926372641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Vaccaro, AR, Rizzolo, SJ, Balderston, RA, Allardyce, TJ, Garfin, SR, Dolinskas, C, An, HS 1995Placement of pedicle screws in the thoracic spine. Part II: an anatomical and radiographic assessment.J Bone Joint Surg Am7712001206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Vaidyanathan, S, Hughes, P, Sett, P, Oo, T, Soni, BM, Singh, G 2003Injury to renal vein during fixation of fractured lumbar spine and subsequent atrophy of kidney in a female patient with spinal cord injury and paraplegia.Spinal Cord41527529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Vanichkachorn, JS, Vaccaro, AR, Cohen, MJ, Cotler, JM 1997Potential large vessel injury during thoracolumbar pedicle screw removal. A case report.Spine22110113CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Visocchi, M, Masferrer, R, Sonntag, VK, Dickman, CA 1998Thoracoscopic approaches to the thoracic spine.Acta Neurochir (Wien)140737743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Watkins, R 1992Anterior lumbar interbody fusion surgical complications.Clin Orthop Relat Res2844753PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Weiner, BK, Walker, M, Fraser, RD 2001Vascular anatomy anterior to lumbosacral transitional vertebrae and implications for anterior lumbar interbody fusion.Spine J1442444CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Whitecloud, TS,3rd, Castro, FP,Jr, Brinker, MR, Hartzog, CW,Jr, Ricciardi, JE, Hill, C 1998Degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine treated with intervertebral titanium cages and posterior instrumentation for circumferential fusion.J Spinal Disord11479486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Wimmer, C, Krismer, M, Gluch, H, Ogon, M, Stockl, B 1999Autogenic versus allogenic bone grafts in anterior lumbar interbody fusion.Clin Orthop Relat Res360122126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Winter, RB, Lonstein, JE, Denis, F, Leonard, AS, Garamella, JJ 1996Paraplegia resulting from vessel ligation.Spine2112321234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Woolsey, RM 1986Aortic laceration after anterior spinal fusion.Surg Neurol25267268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Wright, NM, Lauryssen, C 1998Vertebral artery injury in C1–2 transarticular screw fixation: results of a survey of the AANS/CNS section on disorders of the spine and peripheral nerves. American Association of Neurological Surgeons/Congress of Neurological Surgeons.J Neurosurg88634640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Yeh, YC, Sun, WZ, Lin, CP, Hui, CK, Huang, IR, Lee, TS 2004Prolonged retraction on the normal common carotid artery induced lethal stroke after cervical spine surgery.Spine29E431E434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Zdeblick, TA, David, SM 2000A prospective comparison of surgical approach for anterior L4–L5 fusion: laparoscopic versus mini anterior lumbar interbody fusion.Spine2526822687PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Zhou, W, Bush, RL, Terramani, TT, Lin, PH, Lumsden, AB 2004Treatment options of iatrogenic pelvic vein injuries: conventional operative versus endovascular approach–case reports.Vasc Endovascular Surg38569573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Zigler, JE 2004Lumbar spine arthroplasty using the ProDisc II.Spine J4260S267SPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Inamasu
    • 1
  • B. H. Guiot
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryUniversity of South Florida College of MedicineTampaUSA

Personalised recommendations