Extracellular fluid S100B in the injured brain: a future surrogate marker of acute brain injury?
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The authors describe the measurement of S100B protein in brain extracellular fluid (ECF) of patients with acute brain injury (traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid haemorrhage) using the technique of microdialysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of S100B measurement in the human brain. Acute Brain Injury (ABI) is a leading cause of death and disability and the need for a practical and sensitive biochemical marker for monitoring these patients is urgent. The calcium binding astrocyte protein, S100B, may be a candidate for this role. Previous serum studies have shown S100B to be a sensitive predictor of mortality and rise in intracranial pressure in ABI, but it has never before been measured directly within the brain. The ECF reflects the local biochemistry of the brain parenchyma, and the use of intracerebral microdialysis opens up the possibility of studying many novel surrogate markers of injury in the laboratory, in addition to the conventional markers it measures at the bedside (lactate, pyruvate, glucose, and glycerol). In this preliminary report of two cases, the authors demonstrate the quantification of S100B in ECF microdialysate, and investigate whether changes in hourly S100B profile can be related to secondary brain injury. It is shown that extracellular concentrations of S100B change markedly in response to secondary brain injury. Further investigation is required to determine whether extracellular S100B measurement in ABI could assist in patient management.
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