pp 1–30 | Cite as

MDPCluster: a swarm-based community detection algorithm in large-scale graphs

  • Mahsa Fozuni Shirjini
  • Saeed FarziEmail author
  • Amin Nikanjam


Social network analysis has become an important topic for researchers in sociology and computer science. Similarities among individuals form communities as the basic constitutions of social networks. Regarding the importance of communities, community detection is a fundamental step in the study of social networks typically modeled as large-scale graphs. Detecting communities in such large-scale graphs which generally suffers from the curse of dimensionality is the main objective followed in this study. An efficient modularity-based community detection algorithm called MDPCluster is introduced in order to detect communities in large-scale graphs in a timely manner. To address the high dimensionality problem, first, a Louvain-based algorithm is utilized by MDPCluster to distinguish initial communities as super-nodes and then a Modified Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm, called MDPSO is leveraged to detect communities through maximizing modularity measure. MDPSO discretizes Particle Swarm Optimization using the idea of transmission tendency and also escapes from premature convergence thereby a mutation operator inspired by Genetic Algorithm. To evaluate the proposed method, six standard datasets, i.e., American College Football, Books about US Politics, Amazon Product Co-purchasing, DBLP, GR-QC and HEP-TH have been employed. The first two are known as synthetic datasets whereas the rest are real-world datasets. In comparison to eight state-of-the-art algorithms, i.e., Stationary Genetic Algorithm, Generational Genetic Algorithm, Simulated Annealing-Stationary Genetic Algorithm, Simulated Annealing-Generational Genetic Algorithm, Grivan–Newman, Danon and Label Propagation Algorithm, the results indicate the superiorities of MDCluster in terms of modularity, Normalized Mutual Information and execution time as well.


Particle swarm optimization Community detection Swarm intelligence Large scale graphs Louvain algorithm 

Mathematics Subject Classification




  1. 1.
    González-Bailón S (2013) Social science in the era of big data. Policy Int 5(2):147–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Javadi, SHS, Gharani P, Khadivi S (2018) Detecting community structure in dynamic social networks using the concept of leadership. In: Sustainable interdependent networks. Springer, pp 97–118Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jiang JQ, McQuay LJ (2012) Modularity functions maximization with nonnegative relaxation facilitates community detection in networks. Physica A 391(3):854–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yang J, Leskovec J (2015) Defining and evaluating network communities based on ground-truth. Knowl Inf Syst 42(1):181–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kadirkamanathan V, Selvarajah K, Fleming PJ (2006) Stability analysis of the particle dynamics in particle swarm optimizer. IEEE Trans Evol Comput 10(3):245–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Du K-L, Swamy M (2016) Particle swarm optimization. In: Search and optimization by metaheuristics. Springer, pp 153–173Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Poli R, Kennedy J, Blackwell T (2007) Particle swarm optimization. Swarm Intell 1(1):33–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yuan X, Wang L, Yuan Y (2008) Application of enhanced PSO approach to optimal scheduling of hydro system. Energy Convers Manag 49(11):2966–2972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liu B, Wang L, Jin Y-H (2007) An effective PSO-based memetic algorithm for flow shop scheduling. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern Part B Cybern 37(1):18–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu B, Wang L, Jin Y, Huang D (2005) Advances in particle swarmoptimization algorithm. Control Instrum Chem Ind 32(3):1–6Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Aung TT, Nyunt TTS (2019) Discrete artificial bee colony algorithm for community detection in social networks. In: Seventeenth international conference on computer applications (ICCA 2019)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ghoshal AK, Das N, Bhattacharjee S, Chakraborty G (2019) A fast parallel genetic algorithm based approach for community detection in large networks. In: 2019 11th international conference on communication systems and networks (COMSNETS). IEEE, pp 95–101Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Guerrero M, Montoya FG, Baños R, Alcayde A, Gil C (2017) Adaptive community detection in complex networks using genetic algorithms. Neurocomputing 266:101–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Raghavan UN, Albert R, Kumara S (2007) Near linear time algorithm to detect community structures in large-scale networks. Phys Rev E 76(3):036106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Newman ME, Girvan M (2004) Finding and evaluating community structure in networks. Phys Rev E 69(2):026113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Traag VA, Waltman L, van Eck NJ (2019) From Louvain to Leiden: guaranteeing well-connected communities. Scientific Rep 9:e5233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Guimera R, Danon L, Diaz-Guilera A, Giralt F, Arenas A (2003) Self-similar community structure in a network of human interactions. Phys Rev E 68(6):065103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Que X, Checconi F, Petrini F, Gunnels JA (2015) Scalable community detection with the louvain algorithm. In: 2015 IEEE international on parallel and distributed processing symposium (IPDPS). IEEE, pp 28–37Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Newman ME (2012) Communities, modules and large-scale structure in networks. Nat Phys 8(1):25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schaeffer SE (2007) Graph clustering. Comput Sci Rev 1(1):27–64zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rossi F, Villa-Vialaneix N (2010) Optimizing an organized modularity measure for topographic graph clustering: a deterministic annealing approach. Neurocomputing 73(7–9):1142–1163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang R-S, Zhang S, Wang Y, Zhang X-S, Chen L (2008) Clustering complex networks and biological networks by nonnegative matrix factorization with various similarity measures. Neurocomputing 72(1–3):134–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Blondel VD, Guillaume J-L, Lambiotte R, Lefebvre E (2008) Fast unfolding of communities in large networks. J Stat Mech Theory Exp 2008(10):P10008zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Newman ME (2001) Scientific collaboration networks. II. Shortest paths, weighted networks, and centrality. Phys Rev E 64(1):016132MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shang R, Bai J, Jiao L, Jin C (2013) Community detection based on modularity and an improved genetic algorithm. Physica A 392(5):1215–1231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Moradi M, Parsa S (2019) An evolutionary method for community detection using a novel local search strategy. Physica A 523:457–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ying W et al (2019) Parallel conical area community detection using evolutionary multi-objective optimization. Processes 7(2):111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ji J, Song X, Liu C, Zhang X (2013) Ant colony clustering with fitness perception and pheromone diffusion for community detection in complex networks. Physica A 392(15):3260–3272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cai Q, Gong M, Shen B, Ma L, Jiao L (2014) Discrete particle swarm optimization for identifying community structures in signed social networks. Neural Netw 58:4–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hassan EA, Hafez AI, Hassanien AE, Fahmy AA (2014) Community detection algorithm based on artificial fish swarm optimization. In: Intelligent Systems’ 2014. Springer, pp 509–521Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wang Y, Xu W, Kang Q (2018) AFSMA: an enhanced artificial fish swarm algorithm based on mutuality for community detection. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on big data research. ACM, pp 107–113Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Li X, Wu X, Xu S, Qing S, Chang P-C (2019) A novel complex network community detection approach using discrete particle swarm optimization with particle diversity and mutation. Appl Soft Comput 81:105476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Eberhart R, Kennedy J (1995) A new optimizer using particle swarm theory. In: Proceedings of the sixth international symposium on micro machine and human science, 1995. MHS’95. IEEE, pp 39–43Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kennedy R, Eberhart J (1995) Particle swarm optimization. In: Proceedings of IEEE international conference on neural networks IV, vol 1000, p 1995Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yang X-S (2014) Swarm intelligence based algorithms: a critical analysis. Evol Intell 7(1):17–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Yang X-S, He X (2016) Nature-inspired optimization algorithms in engineering: overview and applications. In: Nature-inspired computation in engineering. Springer, pp 1–20Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Yu YF, Li G, Xu C (2013) An improved particle swarm optimization algorithm. In: Applied mechanics and materials. Trans Tech Publ, vol 401, pp 1328–1335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Selvi V, Umarani DR (2010) Comparative analysis of ant colony and particle swarm optimization techniques. Int J Comput Appl 5(4):1–6Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Shi Y, Eberhart R (1998) A modified particle swarm optimizer. In: The 1998 IEEE international conference on evolutionary computation proceedings, 1998. IEEE World Congress on Computational Intelligence. IEEE, pp 69–73Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Clerc M (2004) Discrete particle swarm optimization, illustrated by the traveling salesman problem. In: New optimization techniques in engineering. Springer, pp 219–239Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pan Q-K, Tasgetiren MF, Liang Y-C (2008) A discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm for the no-wait flowshop scheduling problem. Comput Oper Res 35(9):2807–2839MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Strasser S, Goodman R, Sheppard J, Butcher S (2016) A new discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm. In: Proceedings of the genetic and evolutionary computation conference 2016. ACM, pp 53–60Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wu H, Nie C, Kuo F-C, Leung H, Colbourn CJ (2015) A discrete particle swarm optimization for covering array generation. IEEE Trans Evol Comput 19(4):575–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chatterjee S, Sarkar S, Hore S, Dey N, Ashour AS, Balas VE (2017) Particle swarm optimization trained neural network for structural failure prediction of multistoried RC buildings. Neural Comput Appl 28(8):2005–2016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Momeni E, Armaghani DJ, Hajihassani M, Amin MFM (2015) Prediction of uniaxial compressive strength of rock samples using hybrid particle swarm optimization-based artificial neural networks. Measurement 60:50–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lynn N, Suganthan PN (2015) Distance based locally informed particle swarm optimizer with dynamic population size. In: Proceedings of the 18th Asia Pacific symposium on intelligent and evolutionary systems-volume 2. Springer, pp 577–587Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Meunier D, Lambiotte R, Fornito A, Ersche K, Bullmore ET (2009) Hierarchical modularity in human brain functional networks. Front Neuroinform 3:37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pujol JM, Erramilli V, Rodriguez P (2009) Divide and conquer: partitioning online social networks. arXiv preprint arXiv:0905.4918
  49. 49.
    Raeder T, Chawla NV (2011) Market basket analysis with networks. Social Netw Anal Min 1(2):97–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Newman ME (2006) Modularity and community structure in networks. Proc Natl Acad Sci 103(23):8577–8582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Leskovec J, Kleinberg J, Faloutsos C (2007) Graph evolution: Densification and shrinking diameters. ACM Trans Knowl Discovery Data (TKDD) 1(1):2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Boseniuk T, Ebeling W (1990) Boltzmann-, Darwin-and Haeckel-strategies in optimization problems. In International conference on parallel problem solving from nature. Springer, pp 429–444Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kirkpatrick S, Gelatt CD, Vecchi MP (1983) Optimization by simulated annealing. Science 220(4598):671–680MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Cai X, Shi Y, Zhu Y, Qiao Y, Hu F (2017) An algorithm Q-PSO for community detection in complex networks. In 2017 16th international symposium on distributed computing and applications to business, engineering and science (DCABES). IEEE, pp 76–79Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bilal S, Abdelouahab M (2017) Evolutionary algorithm and modularity for detecting communities in networks. Physica A 473:89–96zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gong M, Fu B, Jiao L, Du H (2011) Memetic algorithm for community detection in networks. Phys Rev E 84(5):056101CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Artificial Intelligence, Faculty of Computer EngineeringK. N. Toosi University of TechnologyTehranIran

Personalised recommendations