, Volume 96, Issue 10, pp 951–973 | Cite as

Generalized integer transform based reversible watermarking algorithm using efficient location map encoding and adaptive thresholding



A novel algorithm that improves a generalized integer transform based reversible watermarking scheme is proposed in this paper. In our proposed algorithm, two main improvements have been achieved: adaptive thresholding and efficient location map encoding. With adaptive thresholding, suitable threshold \(t\) is selected adaptively, which ensures enough embedding capacity for the watermark while keeps the distortion introduced as low as possible. This modification is influential as an unsuitable threshold can lead to insufficient space for the watermark or even degrade the visual quality of the image. Moreover, efficient location map encoding helps in reducing the location map size, which down to 0.4 of the one unmodified in average. Therefore, more capacity is available for embedding as there is lesser overhead information. Overall, it provides more embedding capacity whereas improves the visual quality of the embedded image.


Generalized integer transform Location map Reversible watermarking Threshold 

Mathematics Subject Classification

62H35 68U10 94A08 68P25 



The authors would like to thank the referees for their valuable comments. This research was supported in part by the Research Committee of the University of Macau and the Science and Technology Development Fund of Macau SAR (Project No. 034/2010/A2).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer and Information ScienceUniversity of MacauMacau SARChina

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