Holocentric chromosomes may be an apomorphy of Droseraceae
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Holocentric chromosomes have evolved in various plant and animal taxa, which suggests they may confer a selective advantage in certain conditions, yet their adaptive potential has scarcely been studied. One of the reasons may reside in our insufficient knowledge of the phylogenetic distribution of holocentric chromosomes across eukaryotic phylogeny. In the present study, we focused on Droseraceae, a carnivorous plant family with an unknown chromosomal structure in monotypic genera Dionaea and Aldrovanda, and a closely related monotypic family Drosophyllaceae. We used flow cytometry to detect holocentric chromosomes by measuring changes in the ratio of the number of G2 nuclei to the number of G1 nuclei in response to gamma irradiation and determined chromosomal structures in Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Dionaea muscipula, Drosera tokaiensis, and Drosera ultramafica from Droseraceae and Drosophyllum lusitanicum from Drosophyllaceae. We confirmed monocentric chromosomes in D. lusitanicum and detected holocentric chromosomes in all four Droseraceae. Our novel finding of holocentric chromosomes in monotypic genera Aldrovanda and Dionaea suggests that all Droseraceae may be holocentric, but to confirm that further research is needed due to previously reported conflicting results in Drosera rotundifolia.
KeywordsAldrovanda Dionaea Drosera Drosophyllum Flow cytometry Gamma irradiation
We would like to thank Michal Kouba for providing in vitro cultures of Drosera ultramafica and David Švarc for providing the seeds of Drosophyllum lusitanicum. We are grateful to Luboš Maťaš and Josef Hladík from Bioster Company for their assistance with gamma irradiation. This work was supported by the Czech Science Foundation, Grant No. GA17-21053S, and for LA by the Project RVO 67985939.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and animal rights statement
No human participants or animals were involved in this research.
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