Geographic genetic structure of Iberian columbines (gen. Aquilegia)
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Southern European columbines (genus Aquilegia) are involved in active processes of diversification, and the Iberian Peninsula offers a privileged observatory to witness the process. Studies on Iberian columbines have provided significant advances on species diversification, but we still lack a complete perspective of the genetic diversification in the Iberian scenario. This work explores how genetic diversity of the genus Aquilegia is geographically structured across the Iberian Peninsula. We used Bayesian clustering methods, principal coordinates analyses, and NJ phenograms to assess the genetic relationships among 285 individuals from 62 locations and detect the main lineages. Genetic diversity of Iberian columbines consists of five geographically structured lineages, corresponding to different Iberian taxa. Differentiation among lineages shows particularly complex admixture patterns at Northeast and highly homogeneous toward Northwest and Southeast. This geographic genetic structure suggests the existence of incomplete lineage sorting and interspecific hybridization as could be expected in recent processes of diversification under the influence of quaternary postglacial migrations. This scenario is consistent with what is proposed by the most recent studies on European and Iberian columbines, which point to geographic isolation and divergent selection by habitat specialization as the main diversification drivers of the Iberian Aquilegia complex.
KeywordsAFLP Aquilegia Diversification Iberian Peninsula Quaternary postglacial migrations Spatial genetic structure
Authors thank D. Guzmán and A.R. Larrinaga for his invaluable aid while sampling at Pyrenees. At Sierras de Segura y Cazorla, A. Benavente helped us finding locations and S. Arenas assisted in the field. We also benefited from the helpful advice of P. Bazaga on laboratory procedures. M.C. Martinell provided DNA extract from Avp. We also thank the Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems Laboratory of EBD (LAST-EBD). Bioinformatic STRUCTURE analyses were carried out on the (earlier times) freely available Bioportal (www.bioportal.uio.no). This work was partly supported by Grant BOS2003-03979-C02-01, BOS2003-03979-C02-02, and CGL2006-01355/BOS from Ministerio Ciencia y Tecnología. During part of this work JLG was granted by the postdoctoral program (EX2003-0376) of Ministerio Educación, Cultura y Deporte, and by the Severo Ochoa Program for Centres of Excellence in R+D+I (SEV-2012-0262) of Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad.
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The authors declare that the research included in this article accomplishes with the ethical standards of the journal and with all legal requirements regarding samples collection. All authors have been informed and consent with this submission. Founding sources have been declared both in Acknowledgements section as well as in the online submission form. The research does not involve human participants and/or animals.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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