Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 302, Issue 8, pp 943–956 | Cite as

Molecular cytogenetic characterization of Triticum timopheevii chromosomes provides new insight on genome evolution of T. zhukovskyi

  • Ekaterina D. Badaeva
  • Alevtina S. Ruban
  • Svyatoslav A. Zoshchuk
  • Sergei A. Surzhikov
  • Helmut Knüpffer
  • Benjamin Kilian
Original Article


Triticum timopheevii (2n = 4x = 28, GGAtAt) is a tetraploid wheat formerly cultivated in western Georgia. The natural allopolyploid Triticum zhukovskyi is a hexaploid taxon originated from hybridization of T. timopheevii with cultivated einkorn T. monococcum (2n = 2x = 14, AmAm). Karyotypically T. timopheevii and T. zhukovskyi differ from other tetraploid and hexaploid wheats and were assigned to the section Timopheevii of the genus Triticum L. Triticum timopheevii and T. zhukovskyi are resistant to many fungal diseases and therefore could potentially be utilized for wheat improvement. We were aiming to precisely identify all T. timopheevii chromosomes and to trace the evolution of T. zhukovskyi. For this, we developed a set of molecular cytogenetic landmarks based on eleven DNA probes. Each chromosome can now be characterized by two to eight probes. The pTa-535 sequence allows the identification of all At-genome chromosomes, whereas G-genome and some At-genome chromosomes can be identified using (GAA/CTT) n and pSc119.2 probes. The probes pAesp_SAT86, pAs1, Spelt-1, Spelt-52 and 5S and 45S rDNA can be applied as additional markers to discriminate particular chromosomes or chromosomal regions. The distribution of (GAA/CTT) n , pTa-535 and pSc119.2 DNA probes on T. timopheevii chromosomes is distinct from other tetraploid wheats and can therefore be used to track individual chromosomes in introgression programs. Our study confirms the origin of T. zhukovskyi from hybridization of T. timopheevii with T. monococcum; however, we show that the emergence was accompanied by changes involving mostly At-genome chromosomes. This may be due to the presence of two closely related A-genomes in the T. zhukovskyi karyotype.


At-genome and G-genome Chromosome identification Molecular cytogenetic markers Triticum timopheevii T. zhukovskyi Wheat evolution 



We thank Drs. H. Bockelman (USDA-ARS, Aberdeen, Idaho, USA), B. S. Gill (Wheat Genetics and Genomic Resource Centre, Kansas State University, USA), T. Kawahara (Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan), J. Valkoun [International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria], A. Graner [Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), Gatersleben, Germany], G. Fedak (Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Canada), I. M. Matitashvili (Botanical Institute, Tbilisi, Georgia), Z. Yakobashvili (Tbilisi Agricultural Institute, Tbilisi, Georgia), O. P. Mitrofanova [Vavilov Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR), St. Petersburg, Russia], E. B. Budashkina and N. P. Goncharov (Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia) and V. S. Rubtsova (Russian State Agrarian University—Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, Moscow, Russia) for providing the material for our analysis. This work was supported by the Russian State Foundation for Basic Research (projects 14-04-00142, 14-04-00247), State Budget Project and the Program “Dynamics and Preservation of Gene Pools” from the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ekaterina D. Badaeva
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alevtina S. Ruban
    • 3
  • Svyatoslav A. Zoshchuk
    • 2
  • Sergei A. Surzhikov
    • 2
  • Helmut Knüpffer
    • 4
  • Benjamin Kilian
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.N.I. Vavilov Institute of General GeneticsRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Engelhardt Institute of Molecular BiologyRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Russian State Agrarian University-Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural AcademyMoscowRussia
  4. 4.Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), OT GaterslebenSeelandGermany
  5. 5.Bayer CropScience, R&D, Breeding and Trait DevelopmentGhentBelgium

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