Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 302, Issue 7, pp 819–851 | Cite as

Taxonomic revision of the genus Schaueria (Acanthaceae)

  • Ana Luiza A. CôrtesEmail author
  • Thomas F. Daniel
  • Alessandro Rapini
Original Article


The genus Schaueria (Acanthaceae) has not been comprehensively treated for more than 150 years. Here, we propose a recircumscription of Schaueria based on molecular phylogenetic results and present a taxonomic revision of the genus. We recognise 14 species, which occur mainly in semideciduous montane forests, rain forests, and restingas, from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul states, Brazil. Three new species are described in the genus—S. hirta, S. pyramidalis, and S. thyrsiflora—and six are excluded from the genus. Four new combinations and two new synonyms are proposed, and five lectotypes are designated. Many species of Schaueria are endangered, critically endangered or vulnerable, and two species are assessed as near threatened because of continuous decline of habitat quality and extent of Atlantic forest. We provide a key to identify the genera of the Tetramerium lineage that occur in South America, and present descriptions, illustrations, and comments for the 14 species of Schaueria, as well as a key to identify them.


Atlantic forest Conservation assessment Justicia Molecular phylogenetics Morphology 



We would like to thank the herbaria BM, BR, CAS, CEN, CEPEC, CGE, CUZ, ESA, G, GOET, GUA, GZU, HUEFS, INPA, K, M, MBM, MG, NY, OXF, P, R, RB, SP, SPF, UB, UC, UEC, UFG, US, USM, USZ, and W for loans, images, and assistance during visits. We also thank Armin Löckher (W), for valuable information about the collections by Schott and Pohl; Deborah Bell (US) for permission to examine pollen grains from the type of Schaueria schottii; Pedro Moraes for images of several type-collections and also for discussions; Denise Braz for the new collection and images of Schaueria thyrsiflora; Fiocruz for the use of SEM to analyse pollen grains, seed and trichomes; Aline Mota, Fabrício Moreira and Anderson Machado for helping during field work; Ricardo Landim for assistance during field work and help with pollen grain description; Folmer Arnklit and Cees Lut for bibliographic information; and Jim and Lois White for logistic support for ALAC in California. We are grateful to CNPq and Fapesb for supporting Pronex and Reflora projects; CAPES for Ph.D. fellowship (PDSE) for ALAC and CNPq for research fellowship to AR.

Compliance with ethical standards


This study was funded by FAPESB and CAPES (Ph.D. fellowship for Ana Luiza Côrtes), FAPESB supporting of Pronex project (PNX 0014/2009), CNPq and CAPES supporting of Reflora project and CNPq (research fellowship for Alessandro Rapini).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Luiza A. Côrtes
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Thomas F. Daniel
    • 3
  • Alessandro Rapini
    • 1
  1. 1.Programa de Pós-graduação em BotânicaUniversidade Estadual de Feira de SantanaFeira de SantanaBrazil
  2. 2.Faculdade GuanambiGuanambiBrazil
  3. 3.Department of BotanyCalifornia Academy of SciencesSan FranciscoUSA

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