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Ovule ontogeny in Billbergia nutans in the evolutionary context of Bromeliaceae (Poales)

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Abstract

The infrasubfamilial relations within Bromeliaceae are still not fully understood, especially in Bromelioideae. Billbergia nutans (Bromelioideae) is one of the most widely cultivated bromeliads. This study aims to characterise ovule ontogeny in B. nutans and to review the literature concerning ovules at a family level, to verify useful data for taxonomy and identify the evolutionary scenario of embryological characters within the family. Novel data are recorded for the genus. The ovules of Bromeliaceae are anatropous, bitegmic and crassinucellate, with trizonate ovule primordia, a monosporic development, a linear type of tetrad, callosic cell walls during meiosis, a functional chalazal gynospore, a Polygonum-type gametophyte, the presence of a hypostase, and a dermal origin of the integuments. In B. nutans, the chalazal appendage morphology shows intraspecific variability and might thus not be an appropriate character for taxonomic use. This is the first report on the three-dimensional reconstruction of the female gametophyte of a monocotyledon. Many useful characters are suggested for the taxonomy of Bromeliaceae. The evolutionary scenario of the ovule in the family indicates that the earliest-divergent subfamily, Brocchinioideae, possesses a reduced state of several characters. Among the family, some characters appear homoplasious and might be relevant when applied to lower taxonomic levels. The two-layered integuments and the small number of ovules per carpel are probably plesiomorphic states in Poales.

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Acknowledgments

We thank the Laboratório de Anatomia Vegetal at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) for technical support; CAPES, for granting a doctoral fellowship to the first author; CNPq, for a research grant to the second author; FAPERGS/CNPq for the grant given via PRONEX; the Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul and Jardim Botânico de Porto Alegre, for permission to collect samples from the Bromeliaceae Collection and our colleagues Ms. Márcia Goetze and Dr. Camila Zanella for help in collecting the material.

Author information

Correspondence to Jorge Ernesto de Araujo Mariath.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

The video shows the mature female gametophyte of Billbergia nutans reconstructed in three dimensions, viewed from all angles. (MPG 4327 kb)

The video shows the mature female gametophyte of Billbergia nutans reconstructed in three dimensions, viewed from all angles. (MPG 4327 kb)

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Fagundes, N.F., de Araujo Mariath, J.E. Ovule ontogeny in Billbergia nutans in the evolutionary context of Bromeliaceae (Poales). Plant Syst Evol 300, 1323–1336 (2014) doi:10.1007/s00606-013-0964-x

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Keywords

  • Bromeliaceae
  • Development
  • Embryology
  • Female gametophyte
  • Three-dimensional reconstruction
  • Ovule