Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 300, Issue 5, pp 819–830 | Cite as

Phylogenetic diversity and genome sizes of Astragalus (Fabaceae) in the Lebanon biogeographical crossroad

  • Farah Abdel Samad
  • Alex Baumel
  • Marianick Juin
  • Daniel Pavon
  • Sonia Siljak-Yakovlev
  • Frédéric Médail
  • Magda Bou Dagher Kharrat
Original Article

Abstract

The Lebanese mountain range is an important zone of plant species richness and endemism where the genus Astragalus constitutes a principal component of plant biodiversity. Most of endemic Astragalus taxa, living in mountains and arid zones of Mounts Lebanon and anti-Lebanon, are characterized by a cushion, spiny vegetative form, named “tragacanthic”, which is a remarkable example of vegetative convergence evolution. Because of determination difficulties, taxonomic uncertainties, and discrepancy in the number of taxa listed according to authors, new data are hardly needed to improve systematics of Astragalus and to investigate the role of the Lebanese mountain range as refugia of biodiversity. Before this study only two values on the genome size of Astragalus were reported in the literature and no previous molecular studies had been carried out on Astragalus genus in Lebanon. We examined the utility of rDNA ITS molecular markers to distinguish Astragalus species of Lebanese mountain range and the variation range of their genome size. The main results revealed a striking diversity in Lebanese Astragalus species with the emphasis of a huge variation of genome sizes, an important inter-specific chromosome polymorphism and the existence of a high phylogenetic diversity. The strict endemic species of the Lebanese mountains are positioned throughout the phylogeny. These results confirm that the Lebanon and anti-Lebanon mounts constitute a third diversity center for Astragalus and that high altitude areas are important refugia of plant biodiversity despite centuries of exploitation by humans.

Keywords

Eastern Mediterranean region Endemism Hotspot Irano-Turanian region Phylogeny Glacial refugium 

Supplementary material

606_2013_921_MOESM1_ESM.doc (51 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 51 kb)

References

  1. Abi-Saleh B, Safi S (1998) Carte de la vegetation du Liban au 1/500 000. Notice explicative. Ecol. Mediterr 14(1/2):123–142Google Scholar
  2. Ainouche ML, Jenczewski E (2010) Focus on polyploidy. New Phytol 186:1–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Altschul SF, Madden TL, Schaffer AA, Zhang J, Zhang Z, Miller W, Lipman DJ (1997) Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acid Res 25:3389–3402PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alvarez I, Wendel JF (2003) Ribosomal ITS sequences and plant phylogenetic inference. Mol Phylogenet Evol 29:417–434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Asmar F, Assaf R, Babikian Assaf C, Buccianti-Barakat L, Eddé C (2006) Atlas du Liban. Géographie, histoire, économie et société. Presses de l’Université Saint-Joseph, BeyrouthGoogle Scholar
  6. Bennett MD, Bhandol P, Leitch IJ (2000) Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms and their modern uses—807 new estimates. Ann Bot 86:859–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boissier E (1872) Astragalus, flora orientalis. H Georg Geneva 2:205–498Google Scholar
  8. Bou Dagher-Kharrat M, Siljak-Yakovlev S, Abdel Samad N, Douaihy N, Bourge M, Brown S (2013) Nuclear DNA C-values for biodiversity screening: case of the Lebanese flora. Plant Biosyst 147(4) (in press)Google Scholar
  9. Bou Dagher-Kharrat M, Mariette S, Fady B, Lefevre F, Grenier G, Plomion C, Savouré A (2007) Geographical diversity and genetic relationships among Cedrus species assayed by AFLP. Tree Genet Genomes 3:275–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brullo S, Giusso del Galdo G, Musarella CM (2012) Taxonomic revision of Astragalus angustifolius group (Fabaceae). Bocconea 24:19–52Google Scholar
  11. Brysting AK, Mathiesen C, Marcussen T (2011) Challenges in polyploid phylogenetic reconstruction: a case story from the arctic-alpine Cerastium alpinum complex. Taxon 60:333–347Google Scholar
  12. Cartier D (1979) Premières prospections caryologiques du genre Astragalus L. dans la flore du bassin méditerranéen oriental. Revue de Cytologie et de Biologie Végétales, le Botaniste 2:169–181Google Scholar
  13. Constantinidis T, Kamari G (2000) A karyological study of ten taxa of phanerogams (Compositae, Leguminosae, and Umbelliferae) from Greece. Bot Chron (Patras) 13:117–131Google Scholar
  14. Doležel J, Bartoš J, Voglmayr H, Greilhuber J (2003) Nuclear DNA content and genome size of trout and human. Cytometry 51:127–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Douaihy B, Vendramin GG, Boratyński A, Machon N, Bou Dagher-Kharrat M (2011) High genetic diversity with moderate differentiation in Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. from Lebanon and the Eastern Mediterranean Region. AOB Plants. doi:10.1093/aobpla/PLR003 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Doyle JJ, Doyle JL (1987) A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochem Bull 19:11–15Google Scholar
  17. Edgar RC (2004) MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acid Res 32:1792–1797PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eig A (1931) Les éléments et les groupes phytogéographiques auxiliaires dans la flore palestinienne. Repert Spec Nov Regni Veg 63:1–201Google Scholar
  19. Fady B, Lefèvre F, Vendramin GG, Ambert A (2008) Genetic consequences of past climate and human impact on eastern Mediterranean Cedrus libani forests. Implications for their conservation. Conserv Genet 9:85–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fernandes A, Santos MF (1975) Contribution à la connaissance cytotaxinomique des Spermatophyta du Portugal. IV. Leguminosae. Bol Soc Brot ser 49(1):173–196Google Scholar
  21. Galbraith D, Harkins K, Maddox J, Ayres N, Sharma D, Firoozabady E (1983) Rapid flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle in intact plant tissues. Science 220:1049–1051PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gentry HS (1957) Gum tragacanth in Iran. Econ Bot 2:40–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Greilhuber J, Doležel J, Lysak MA, Bennett MD (2005) The origin, evolution and proposed stabilization of the terms ‘genome size’ and ‘C-value’ to describe nuclear DNA contents. Ann Bot (London) 95:255–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hajar L (2008) Dynamique passée et future de la végétation au Liban depuis la fin du Pleistocène (c. 15000 cal. BP). Montpellier II University, MontpellierGoogle Scholar
  25. Hajar L, Khater C, Cheddadi R (2008) Vegetation changes during the late Pleistocene and Holocene in Lebanon: a pollen record from the Bekaa Valley. Holocene 18:1089–1099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hajar L, Haïdar-Boustani M, Khater C, Cheddadi R (2010) Environmental changes in Lebanon during the Holocene: man vs. climate impacts. J Arid Envir 74:746–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Higgins D, Bleasby A, Fuchs R (1992) Clustal V: improved software for multiple sequence alignment. Comput Applic Biosci 8:189–191Google Scholar
  28. Huson DH, Bryant D (2006) Application of phylogenetic networks in evolutionary studies. Mol Biol Evol 23:254–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kazemi M, Kazempour Osaloo S, Maassoumi AA, Rastegar Pouyani E (2009) Molecular phylogeny of selected Old World Astragalus (Fabaceae): incongruence among chloroplast trnL-F, ndhF and nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequences. Nord J Bot 27:425–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kazempour Osaloo S, Maassoumi AA, Murakami N (2003) Molecular systematic ofm the genus Astragalus L. (Fabaceae): phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers and chloroplast gene ndhF sequences. Plant Syst Evol 242:1–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kazempour Osaloo S, Maassoumi AA, Murakami N (2005) Molecular systematics of the Old World Astragalus (Fabaceae) as inferred from nrDNA ITS sequence data. Brittonia 57:367–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kürschner H (1986) A study of the vegetation of the qurm nature reserve, muscat area. Oman Arab Gulf J Sci Res 4:23–52Google Scholar
  33. Ledingham GF, Fahselt MD (1964) Chromosome numbers of some North American species of Astragalus (Leguminosae). Sida 1:313–327Google Scholar
  34. Ledingham GF, Rever BM (1963) Chromosome numbers of some Southwest Asian species of Astragalus and Oxytropis (Leguminosae). Canad J Genet Cytol 5:18–32Google Scholar
  35. Liston A, Wheeler JA (1994) The phylogenetic position of the genus Astragalus (fabaceae): evidence from the chloroplast genes rpoC1 and rpoC2. Biochem Sys Ecol 22(4):377–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lock JM, Schrire BD (2005) Tribe Galegeae. In: Lewis GSB, Mackinder B, Lock M (eds) Legumes of the world. Royal Botanical Garden, Kew, pp 475–488Google Scholar
  37. Maassoumi AA (1998) Old world check-list of Astragalus. Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, TehranGoogle Scholar
  38. Makhoul E (2012) Les Astragales: à la découverte de la Flore libanaise. Presses de l’Université Saint-Joseph, BeyrouthGoogle Scholar
  39. Mansion G, Rosenbaum G, Schoenenberger N, Bacchetta G, Rosselló J, Conti E (2008) Phylogenetic analysis informed by geological history supports multiple, sequential invasions of the Mediterranean Basin by the Angiosperm family Araceae. Syst Biol 57:269–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Marie D, Brown SC (1993) A cytometric exercise in plant DNA histograms, with 2C values for 70 species. Biol Cell 78:41–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Médail F, Diadema K (2009) Glacial refugia influence plant diversity patterns in the Mediterranean Basin. J Biogeogr 36:1333–1345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Médail F, Quézel P (1997) Hot-Spots analysis for conservation of plant biodiversity in the Mediterranean Basin. Ann Mo Bot Gard 84:112–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mouterde P (1984) Nouvelle Flore du Liban et de la Syrie. 3:578Google Scholar
  44. Müller K (2005) SeqState—primer design and sequence statistics for phylogenetic DNA data sets. Appl Bioinforma 4:65–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nieto Feliner GN, Rosselló JA (2007) Better the devil you know? Guidelines for insightful utilization of nrDNA ITS in species-level evolutionary studies in plants. Mol Phylogenet Evol 44:911–919PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Podlech D (1986) Taxonomic and phytogeographic problems in Astragalus of the Old World and South-West Asia. Proc Roy Soc Edinburgh 89(B):37–43Google Scholar
  47. Podlech D (1998) Phylogeny and progression of characters in Old World Astragali (Leguminosae). In: Zhang A, Wu S (eds) Floristic characteristics and diversity of East Asian plants. China Higher Edcation Press, Beijing, pp 405–407Google Scholar
  48. Podlech D (1999) New Astragali and Oxytropis from north Africa and Asia, including some new combinations and remarks on some species. Sendtnera 6:135–191Google Scholar
  49. Podlech D, Ekici M (2008) Some new and interesting Astragalus species from Turkey. Fedd Repetit 119:24–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Podlech D, Zarre S (2013) A taxonomic revision of the genus Astragalus L. (Leguminosae) in the Old World, 3 vollsGoogle Scholar
  51. Siljak-Yakovlev S, Stevanovic V, Tomasevic M, Brown SC, Stevanovic B (2008) Genome size variation and polyploidy in the resurrection plant genus Ramonda: cytogeography of living fossils. Env Exp Bot 62:101–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Siljak-Yakovlev S, Pustahija F, Solic EM et al (2010) Towards a genome size and chromosome number database of Balkan flora: C-values in 343 taxa with novel values for 242. Adv Sci Lett 3:190–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Simmons M, Ochoterena H (2000) Gaps as characters in sequence-based phylogenetic analysis. Syst Biol 49:369–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, Kumar S (2007) MEGA4: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol 24:1596–1599PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tohmé G, Tohmé H (2007) Illustrated flora of Lebanon. CNRS Lebanon, BeyrouthGoogle Scholar
  56. White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor JW (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ (eds) PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, Inc, New York, pp 315–322Google Scholar
  57. Wojciechowski MF (2005) Astragalus (Fabaceae): a molecular phylogenetic perspective. Brittonia 57:382–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wojciechowski MF, Sanderson MJ, Baldwin BG, Donoghue MJ (1993) Monophyly of aneuploid Astragalus (Fabaceae): evidence from nuclear ribosomal DNA-ITS sequences. Am J Bot 80(711):722Google Scholar
  59. Wojciechowski MF, Sanderson MJ, Hu JM (1999) Evidence on the monophyly of Astragalus (Fabaceae) and its major subgroups based on nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS and chloroplast DNA trnL intron data. Syst Bot 24:409–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zarre-Mobarakeh S (2000) Systematic revision of Astragalus sect. Adiaspastus, sect. Macrophyllium and sect. Pterophorus (Fabaceae). Englera 18:113–114Google Scholar
  61. Zohary M (1973) Geobotanical foundations of the Middle East, vol 1. StuttgartGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Farah Abdel Samad
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alex Baumel
    • 1
  • Marianick Juin
    • 1
  • Daniel Pavon
    • 1
  • Sonia Siljak-Yakovlev
    • 3
  • Frédéric Médail
    • 1
  • Magda Bou Dagher Kharrat
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut Méditerranéen de Biodiversité et d’Ecologie (IMBE, UMR CNRS 7263), Aix-Marseille Université, Technopôle de l’Environnement Arbois-MéditerranéeAix-en-Provence cedex 04France
  2. 2.Laboratoire Caractérisation Génomique des Plantes, Département Sciences de la Vie et de la Terre, Faculté des Sciences, Campus Sciences et TechnologiesUniversité Saint-JosephMkallesLebanon
  3. 3.Univ. Paris-Sud, Ecologie, Systématique, Evolution, UMR 8079, CNRS-PSU-AgroParisTech, Université Paris-SudOrsay cedexFrance

Personalised recommendations