Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 298, Issue 8, pp 1437–1453 | Cite as

Variation of pollen morphology, and its implications in the phylogeny of Clematis (Ranunculaceae)

Original Article

Abstract

Clematis s.l. (including Archiclematis and Naravelia) is a genus of approximately 300 species with cosmopolitan distribution. The diversity of its pollen was surveyed in 162 taxa belonging to all infrageneric groups of Clematis s.l. Pollen morphology was investigated by use of scanning electron microscopy to identify useful characters, test taxonomic and systematic hypotheses, and elucidate pollen character evolution on the basis of the molecular phylogeny. Clematis pollen is small to medium (14.8–32.1 μm × 14.2–28.7 μm), oblate to prolate (P/E = 0.9–1.4) in shape. The apertures may be tricolpate and pantoporate sometimes with 4-zonocolpate and pantocolpate pollen grains as transitional forms. The tricolpate pollen grains are predominant and occur in all the sections of the genus, whereas pantoporate pollen grains can be found in sect. Tubulosae, sect. Viorna, sect. Viticella, and Naravelia only. Phylogenetic mapping of aperture types reveals that the pantoporate pollen type may be the apomorphy in the genus and evolved several times. The surface ornamentation in all taxa studied is similar and characterized by microechinae evenly distributed on the microperforate tectum. The size and density of spinules on the tectum vary greatly but successive in the whole genus. According to the character syndromes of the ornamentation, separating sect. Brachiata from sect. Meclatis is supported. Though pollen morphology may contribute to investigation of problematic taxa, the taxonomic value of pollen morphology is limited at the species level.

Keywords

Archiclematis Clematis Naravelia Phylogeny Pollen morphology Ranunculaceae Scanning electron microscopy 

References

  1. Al-Eisawi D (1986) Pollen morphology of Ranunculaceae in Jordan. Pollen Spores 28:311–328Google Scholar
  2. Blackmore S, Stafford P, Persson V (1995) Palynology and systematics of Ranunculiflorae. Plant Syst Evol 9(Suppl):71–82Google Scholar
  3. Brandenburg WA (2000) Meclatis in Clematis: Yellow flowering Clematis species. Systematic studies in Clematis L. (Ranunculaceae), inclusive of cultonomic aspects. Wageningen Universiteit, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  4. Clarke GCS, Punt W, Hoen PP (1991) Ranunculaceae. Northwest Europe pollen flora 51. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 69:117–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Erdtman G (1952) Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy. Angiosperms. Almqvist Wikesll, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  6. Erdtman G (1960) The acetolysis method. A revised description. Sven Bot Tidskr 54:561–564Google Scholar
  7. Ehrendorfer F, Ziman SN, Konig C, Keener CS, Dutton BE, Tsarenko ON, Bulakh EV, Boscaiu M, Medail F, Kastner A (2009) Taxonomic revision, phylogenetics and transcontinental distribution of Anemone section Anemone (Ranunculaceae). Bot J Linn Soc 160:312–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eichler H (1963) Proposal to conserve the generic name Naravelia DC. Taxon 12:206–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Essig FB (1991) Seedling morphology in Clematis (Ranunculaceae) and its taxonomic implications. Sida 14:377–390Google Scholar
  10. Grey-Wilson C (2000) Clematis the genus. Timber Press, PortlandGoogle Scholar
  11. Hammer Ø, Harper DAT, Ryan PD (2001) PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol Electron 4(1):1–9Google Scholar
  12. Hesse M, Zetter R, Halbritter H, Weber M, Buchner R, Frosch-Radivo A, Ulrich S (2009) Pollen terminology—an illustrated handbook. Springer, WienGoogle Scholar
  13. Hoot SB (1995) Phylogeny of the Ranunculaceae based on preliminary atpB, rbcL and 18S nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence data. Plant Syst Evol 9((Suppl.)):241–252Google Scholar
  14. Huynh KL (1970) Le pollen du genre Anemone et du genre Hepatica (Ranunculaceae) et leur taxonomie. Pollen Spores 12:329–364Google Scholar
  15. Ikuse M (1956) Pollen grains of Japan. Hirokawa Publishing Co, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  16. Jiang N, Yu WB, Li HZ, Guan KY (2010) Floral traits, pollination ecology and breeding system of three Clematis species (Ranunculaceae) in Yunnan province, southwestern China. Aust J Bot 58:115–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Johansson JT (1995) A revised chloroplast DNA phylogeny of the Ranunculaceae. Plant Syst Evol 9((Suppl.)):253–262Google Scholar
  18. Johansson JT, Jansen RK (1993) Chloroplast DNA variation and phylogeny of the Ranunculaceae. Plant Syst Evol 187:29–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Johnson M (1997) Släktet Klematis. M. Johnsons Plantskola AB, SödertäljeGoogle Scholar
  20. Kapoor SL, Sharma C, Trivadi BS (1989) A study of the pollen grains of Indian Clematis Linn. (Ranunculaceae). Bull Bot Surv India 31:50–62Google Scholar
  21. Kumazawa M (1936) Pollen grain morphology in Ranunculaceae, Ladizabalaceae and Berberidaceae. Jpn J Bot 8:19–46Google Scholar
  22. Liu JX, Li JY, Zhang YL, Ning JC (2010) Pollen morphology of the tribe Lithospermeae of Boraginoideae in China and its taxonomic significance. Plant Syst Evol 290:75–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liu JX, Zhao CH, Liu XR, Xi YZ, Zhang YL (2011) Pollen morphology of Hosta Tratt. in China and its taxonomic significance. Plant Syst Evol 294:99–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Maddison WP, Maddison DR (2011) Mesquite: a modular system for evolutionary analysis. Version 2.75 (http://mesquiteproject.org)
  25. Miikeda O, Koga S, Handa T, Yukawa T (1999) Subgeneric relationships in Clematis (Ranunculaceae) by DNA sequences. In: Andrews S, Leslie A, Alexander C (eds) Taxonomy of cultivated plants: third international symposium. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, London, pp 355–358Google Scholar
  26. Miikeda O, Kita K, Handa T, Yukawa T (2006) Phylogenetic relationships of Clematis (Ranunculaceae) based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. Bot J Linn Soc 152:153–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Muller J (1970) Palynological evidence on early differentiation of Angiosperms. Biol Rev 54:417–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nair PKK (1965) Pollen grains of Western Himalayan plants. Asia Publishing House, LucknowGoogle Scholar
  29. Nowicke J, Skvarla JJ (1995) Ranunculaceae 8. Pollen Morphology. In: Hiepko P (ed) Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. Zwei. Aufl. 17a(4). Duncker and Humblot, Berlin, pp 129–159Google Scholar
  30. Petrov S, Ivanova B (1975) Pollen morphology of the Bulgarian representatives of the family Ranunculaceae Juss.: III. The genus Clematis L. Fitologiya 2:12–24Google Scholar
  31. Polevova S, Tekleva M, Neumann FH, Scott L, Stager JC (2010) Pollen morphology, ultrastructure and taphonomy of the Neuradaceae with special reference to Neurada procumbens L. and Grielum humifusum E.Mey. ex Harv. et Sond. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 160:163–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Punt W, Hoen PP, Blackmore S, Nilsson S, Le Thomas A (2007) Glossary of pollen and spore terminology. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 143:1–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ro KE, Keener CS, McPheron BA (1997) Molecular phylogenetic study of the Ranunculaceae: Utility of the nuclear 26S ribosomal DNA in inferring intrafamilial relationships. Mol Phylogen Evol 8:117–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Santisuk T (1979) A palynological study of the tribe Ranunculeae. Opera Bot 48:1–74Google Scholar
  35. Shi JH, Li LQ (2003) Leaf epidermal feature in Clematis (Ranunculaceae) with reference to its systematic significance. Acta Bot Sin 45:257–268Google Scholar
  36. Snoeijer W (1992) A suggested classification for the genus Clematis. Clematis 1992:7–20Google Scholar
  37. Tamura M (1987) A classification of genus Clematis. Acta Phytotax Geobot 38:33–44Google Scholar
  38. Tamura M (1991) A new classification of the family Ranunculaceae 2. Acta Phytotax Geobot 42:177–187Google Scholar
  39. Tamura M (1995) Archiclematis and Clematis. In: Hiepko P (ed) Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. Zwei. Aufl. 17a (4). Duncker and Humblot, Berlin, pp 366–387Google Scholar
  40. Tellería MC, Daners G (2003) Pollen types in southern New World Convolvulaceae and their taxonomic significance. Plant Syst Evol 243:99–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tobe H (1974) Morphological studies on the genus Clematis Linn. I. Pollen grains. Sci Rep Tohoku Univ Fourth Ser (Biol) 37:47–53Google Scholar
  42. Tobe H (1980a) Morphological studies on the genus Clematis Linn. V. Vascular anatomy of the calyx region in four-sepaled flowers. Bot Mag Tokyo 93:39–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tobe H (1980b) Morphological studies on the genus Clematis Linn. VI. Vascular anatomy of the androecial and gynoecial regions of the floral receptacle. Bot Mag Tokyo 93:125–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Van Campo M (1976) Patterns of pollen morphological variation within taxa. In: Ferguson IK, Muller J (eds) The evolutionary significance of the exine. Academic, London, pp 125–135Google Scholar
  45. Vishnu-Mittre, Sharma BD (1963) Studies of Indian pollen grains 2. Ranunculaceae. Pollen Spores 5:213–254Google Scholar
  46. Wang WT (2004) A revision of Clematis sect. Brachiatae (Ranunculaceae). Acta Phytotax Sin 42:289–332Google Scholar
  47. Wang WT, Bartholomew B (2001) Clematis. In: Wu ZY, Raven P (eds) Flora of China, vol 6. Science Press, Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing, pp 97–165Google Scholar
  48. Wang WT, Li LQ (2005) A new system of classification of the genus Clematis (Ranunculaceae). Acta Phytotax Sin 43:431–488Google Scholar
  49. Wang WT, Xie L (2007) A revision of Clematis sect. Tubulosae (Ranunculaceae). Acta Phytotax Sin 45:425–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wang W, Lu AM, Ren Y, Endress ME, Chen ZD (2009) Phylogeny and classification of Ranunculales: evidence from four molecular loci and morphological data. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 11:81–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Welsh M, Stefanovic S, Costea M (2010) Pollen evolution and its taxonomic significance in Cuscuta (dodders, Convolvulaceae). Plant Syst Evol 285:83–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wodehouse R (1935) Pollen grains: their structure. Identification and significance in science and medicine. McGraw–Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  53. Wodehouse R (1936) Pollen grains in the identification and classification of plants. VII: The Ranunculaceae. Bull Torrey Bot Club 63:495–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Xi YZ (1985) Studies on pollen morphology of Pulsatilla Mill. Acta Phytotax Sin 23:336–343Google Scholar
  55. Xie L, Wen J, Li LQ (2011) Phylogenetic analyses of Clematis (Ranunculaceae) based on sequences of nuclear ribosomal ITS and three plastid regions. Syst Bot 36:907–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Yang TY, Huang TC (1992) Additional remarks of Ranunculaceae in Taiwan. (3) Clematis section Viorna (Reichb.) Prantl. Taiwania 37:19–53Google Scholar
  57. Yang TY, Moore DM (1999) A revision of the Viorna group of species (section Viorna sensu Prantl) in the genus Clematis (Ranunculaceae). Syst Geogr Plant 68:281–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Yano Y (1993) Pollen grain morphology in Clematis (Ranunculaceae). Clematis 1993:42–43Google Scholar
  59. Zhang YL (1991) Chromosome studies on 7 species of Clematis in China. J Wuhan Bot Res 9:107–113Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Biological Sciences and BiotechnologyBeijing Forestry UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of BotanyThe Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations