Phylogeny and infrageneric classification of Correa Andrews (Rutaceae) on the basis of nuclear and chloroplast DNA
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This paper presents phylogenies of the small but ecologically and horticulturally important Australian genus Correa (Rutaceae). Consensus phylogenies generated using parsimony were congruent with their counterparts generated by Bayesian analysis, although usually less well resolved. The phylogeny generated from the second internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA supported the monophyly of Correa and identified two well supported clades (one comprising C. lawrenceana and C. baeuerlenii and the other containing all other species of the genus). Phylogenetic reconstructions based on the combined trnL-trnF spacer and the trnK intron (including the matK gene) regions of chloroplast DNA also supported the monophyly of Correa and of the C. lawrenceana/C. baeuerlenii clade, but the topology among the other species differed markedly from that in the ITS-based phylogeny. The major clades identified in the chloroplast phylogenies seemed to follow geographic patterns rather than species boundaries, with different samples of C. glabra bearing chloroplast genotypes from different clades. These patterns are likely to be because of independent evolution of the chloroplast and nuclear genomes, and are typical of cases of introgressive hybridisation among species or incomplete lineage sorting of chloroplast genomes leading to incongruence between chloroplast and nuclear phylogenies. Thus, the phylogenies based on nuclear DNA should reflect species relations better than the chloroplast phylogeny in Correa, and we propose a new subgeneric classification of the genus on the basis of the ITS-based phylogeny and morphology. Correa subgenus Persistens Othman, Duretto and G.J. Jord., containing C. lawrenceana and C. baeuerlenii, is formally described.