Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 276, Issue 3–4, pp 219–234 | Cite as

Phylogenetic relationships of Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae) in Italy, inferred from molecular and morphological data matrices

  • L. PeruzziEmail author
  • A. Peterson
  • J.-M. Tison
  • J. Peterson
Original Article


All known Italian Gagea species (23) representing seven out of 14 sections were included in this study. Morphological, molecular and combined data support the basal position of G. trinervia (Anthericoides). According to the molecular data, the sections Anthericoides, Lloydia, Gagea, Minimae and Spathaceae are very well supported; representatives of the sections Didymobulbos and Fistulosae clustered together in the same clade. In this clade, several near-related species groups (series) were recognised. According to 35 morpho-anatomical, ontogenetic and karyological data the section Gagea forms a well-defined monophyletic clade. Within this clade G. tisoniana, G. pusilla and G. cfr. paczoskii are near related. The position of the critical putative hybrid taxa G. luberonensis and G. polidorii is discussed. New series Solenarium (Dulac) Peruzzi and Tison, Occidentales (A. Terracc.) Peruzzi and Tison and Saxatiles (A. Terracc.) Peruzzi and Tison are proposed.


ITS psbA-trnH intergenic spacer trnL-trnF intergenic spacer Gagea Liliaceae Lloydia Morphology Systematics 



We are grateful to Igor Levichev, for providing some plant material for the molecular studies. We would like to thank Doerte Harpke from the Biocentre of the Martin-Luther-University of Halle for her assistance in the Bayesian Analyses and Gianni Bedini from the University of Pisa for useful comments on the manuscript.


  1. Ali SI (2006) Two new species of Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae) from Pakistan. Pak J Bot 38(1):43–46Google Scholar
  2. Allen GA, Soltis DE, Soltis PA (2003) Phylogeny and biogeography of Erythronium (Liliaceae) inferred from chloroplast matK and nuclear rDNA ITS sequences. Syst Bot 28:512–523Google Scholar
  3. Bartolucci F, Peruzzi L (2008) Distribuzione del genere Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae) nell’Appennino centro-settentrionale. Biogeographia (in press)Google Scholar
  4. Bayer E, López González G (1989) Nomenclatural notes on some names in Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae). Taxon 38(4):643–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bohdanowicz J, Lewandowska B (1999) Participation of endoplasmic reticulum in the unequal distribution of plastids during generative cell formation in Gagea lutea (L.) Ker-Gawl. (Liliaceae). Acta Biol Crac Ser Bot 41:177–183Google Scholar
  6. Caparelli KF, Peruzzi L, Cesca G (2006) A comparative analysis of embryo-sac development in three closely-related Gagea Salisb. species (Liliaceae), with some consideration on their reproductive strategies. Pl Biosyst 140(2):115–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cuccuini P, Luccioli E (1995) Tipificazione di Ornithogalum spathaceum Hayne (Liliaceae) e presenza di Gagea spathacea (Hayne) Salisb. nella flora italiana. Webbia 49(2):253–264Google Scholar
  8. Davlianidze MT (1972) Generis Gagea Salisb. conspectus specierum Caucasicarum I. Notulae Systematicae ac Geographicae Instituti Botanici Thbilissensis 29:69–75Google Scholar
  9. Eickbush TH, Eickbush DG (2007) Finely orchestrated movements: Evolution of the ribosomal RNA genes. Genetics 175:477–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Felsenstein J (1985) Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39:783–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ferrer Gallego PP, Laguna Lumbreras E, Alba Villegas S, Tison JM (2007) Sobre la presencia de Gagea lacaitae A. Terracc. (Liliaceae) en la flora valenciana. Acta Bot Malacitana 32:1–12Google Scholar
  12. Gargano D, Peruzzi L, Caparelli KF, Cesca G (2007) Preliminary observations on the reproductive strategies in five early-flowering species of Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae). Bocconea 21:349–358Google Scholar
  13. Greilhuber J, Ebert I, Lorenz A, Vyskot B (2000) Origin of facultative heterochromatin in the endosperm of Gagea lutea (Liliaceae). Protoplasma 212:217–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hall TA (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser 41:95–98Google Scholar
  15. Henker H (2005) Die Goldsterne von Mecklenburg-Vorpommern unter besonderer Berücksichtigung kritischer und neuer Sippen. Botanischer Rundbrief für Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 39:5–89Google Scholar
  16. Huelsenbeck JP, Ronquist F (2001) Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinformatics 17(8):754–755PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Huelsenbeck JP, Larget B, Miller RE, Ronquist F (2002) Potential applications and pitfalls of Bayesian inference of phylogeny. Syst Biol 51:673–688PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kimura M (1980) A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. J Molec Evol 16:111–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ikinci N, Oberprieler C, Güner A (2006) On the origin of European lilies: phylogenetic analysis of Lilium section Liriotypus (Liliaceae) using sequences of the nuclear ribosomal transcribed spacers. Willdenowia 36:647–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. John H, Peterson A, Peterson J (2004) Zum taxonomischen Rang zweier kritischer Sippen der Gattung Gagea in Mitteleuropa. Mitt. florist. Kart. Sachsen-Anhalt (Halle) 9:15–26Google Scholar
  21. Levichev IG (1990) The synopsis of the genus Gagea (Liliaceae) from the western Tien-Shan. Bot Zhurn 75(2):225–234Google Scholar
  22. Levichev IG (1999a) Phytogeographical analysis of the genus Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae). Komarovia 1:47–59Google Scholar
  23. Levichev IG (1999b) The morphology of Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae) I. Subterranean organs. Flora 194:379–392Google Scholar
  24. Levichev IG (2001) New species of the genus Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae) from western regions of Asia. Turczaninowia 4(1–2):5–35Google Scholar
  25. Levichev IG (2006a) Four new species of the genus Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae) from Western Himalayas and the adjoining regions. Pak J Bot 38(1):47–54Google Scholar
  26. Levichev IG (2006b) A review of the Gagea (Liliaceae) species in the flora of Caucasus. Bot Zhurn 91(6):917–951Google Scholar
  27. Levichev IG, Ali SI (2006) Seven new species of the genus Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae) from Western Himalayas and adjoining regions. Pak J Bot 38(1):55–62Google Scholar
  28. Levichev IG, Tison J-M (2004) Typification of the Caucasian Gagea (Liliaceae) taxa described by Karl Koch. Candollea 59:119–133Google Scholar
  29. Nishikawa T, Okazaki K, Uchino T, Arakawa K, Nagamine T (1999) A molecular phylogeny of Lilium in the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. J Molec Evol 49:238–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Patterson TB, Givnish TJ (2002) Phylogeny, concerted convergence, and phylogenetic niche conservatism in the core Liliales: Insights from rbcL and ndhF sequence data. Evolution 56:233–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Patterson TB, Givnish TJ (2004) Geographic cohesion, chromosomal evolution, parallel adaptive radiations, and consequent floral adaptations in Calochortus (Calochortaceae): evidence from a cpDNA phylogeny. New Phytol 161:253–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Peruzzi L (2003) Contribution to the cytotaxonomical knowledge of Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae) sect. Foliatae A. Terracc. and synthesis of karyological data. Caryologia 56(1):115–128Google Scholar
  33. Peruzzi L (2006) Taxonomic considerations on the nomenclatural types of Gagea rhodiaca A. Terracc. and G. reticulata subsp. africana A. Terracc. (Liliaceae), kept at Pisa (PI). Atti Soc Tosc Sci Nat Mem B 113:69–71Google Scholar
  34. Peruzzi L (2008a) Contribution to the cytotaxonomical knowledge of the genus Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae). III. New karyological data from the central Mediterranean area. Caryologia 61(1):92–106Google Scholar
  35. Peruzzi L (2008b) Studi biosistematici nel genere Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae): recenti acquisizioni e problemi ancora aperti. Inform Bot Ital 39(Suppl.1):143–146Google Scholar
  36. Peruzzi L (2008c) Hybridity as a main evolutionary force in the genus Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae). Pl Biosyst 142(1):179–183Google Scholar
  37. Peruzzi L, Aquaro G (2005) Contribution to the cytotaxonomical knowledge of Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae) II. Further karyological studies on Italian populations. Candollea 60(1):237–253Google Scholar
  38. Peruzzi L, Bartolucci F (2006) Gagea luberonensis J.-M. Tison (Liliaceae) new for the Italian flora. Webbia 61(1):1–12Google Scholar
  39. Peruzzi L, Bartolucci F, Frignani F, Minutillo F (2007) G. tisoniana, a new species of Gagea Salisb. sect. Gagea (Liliaceae) from c Italy. Bot J Linn Soc 155(3):337–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Peruzzi L, Caparelli KF (2007) Gagea peduncularis (J. & C. Presl) Pascher (Liliaceae) new for the Italian flora. Webbia 62(2):261–268Google Scholar
  41. Peruzzi L, Gargano D (2005) Distribuzione del genere Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae) in Calabria. Inform Bot Ital 37(2):1117–1124Google Scholar
  42. Peruzzi L, Tison JM, Peterson A, Peterson J (2008) On the phylogenetic position and taxonomic value of Gagea trinervia (Viv.) Greuter and the whole G. sect. Anthericoides A. Terracc. (Liliaceae). Taxon (in press)Google Scholar
  43. Peruzzi L, Tison J-M (2004) Typification and taxonomic status of eleven taxa of Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae) described by Achille and Nicola Terracciano and conserved at Napoli (NAP). Candollea 59(2):325–346Google Scholar
  44. Peruzzi L, Tison J-M (2005) Typification and taxonomic status of six taxa of Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae) described from Sicily and conserved at Palermo (PAL). Candollea 60(2):289–298Google Scholar
  45. Peruzzi L, Tison J-M (2006) Typification of the names and taxonomic status of six taxa of Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae) conserved at Firenze (FI). Candollea 61(2):293–303Google Scholar
  46. Peruzzi L, Tison J-M (2007) Typification of six critical Mediterranean Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae) species. Candollea 62(2):173–188Google Scholar
  47. Peruzzi L, Zarrei M (2007) Typification of some critical taxa of Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae) from W Asia. Candollea 62(2):237–244Google Scholar
  48. Peterson A, John H, Koch E, Peterson J (2004) A molecular phylogeny of the genus Gagea (Liliaceae) in Germany inferred from non-coding chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. Pl Syst Evol 245:145–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Peterson A, Levichev IG, Peterson J (2008) Systematics of Gagea and Lloydia (Liliaceae) and infrageneric classification of Gagea based on molecular and morphological data. Molec Phylogenet Evol 46:446–465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rešetnik I, Liber Z, Satovic Z, Cigić P, Nikolić T (2007) Molecular phylogeny and systematics of the Lilium carniolicum group (Liliaceae) based on nuclear ITS sequences. Pl Syst Evol 265(1–2):45–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rønsted N, Law S, Thornton H, Fay MF, Chase MW (2005) Molecular phylogenetic evidence for the monophyly of Fritillaria and Lilium (Liliaceae; Liliales) and the infrageneric classification of Fritillaria. Molec Phylogenet Evol 35:509–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rozas J, Sánchez-Delbarrio JC, Messeguer X, Rozas R (2003) DnaSP, DNA polymorphism analyses by the coalescent and other methods. Bioinformatics 19:2496–2497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sang T, Crawford DJ, Stuessy TF (1997) Chloroplast DNA phylogeny, reticulate evolution, and biogeography of Paeonia (Paeoniaceae). Amer J Bot 84:1120–1136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Swofford DL (2002) PAUP*. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (* and other methods). Version 4.0b10. Sinauer Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  55. Tan D-Y, Zhang Z, Li X-R, Hong D-Y (2005) Restoration of the genus Amana Honda (Liliaceae) based on a cladistic analysis of morphological characters. Acta Phytotax Sin 43(3):262–270Google Scholar
  56. Thompson JD, Higgins DG, Gibson TJ (1994) Clustal-W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22:4673–4680PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tison JM (1998) Note complementaire sur quelques Gagea français. Monde Pl 462:7–8Google Scholar
  58. Tison J-M (2001) Typification de Gagea cossoniana Pascher, de Gagea fragifera (Vill.) Ehr. Bayer et G. Lopez et de Gagea maroccana (A. Terracc.) Sennen et Mauricio. Candollea 56(1):197–202Google Scholar
  59. Tison J-M (2004a) Gagea polidorii J.-M. Tison, espèce méconnue du sud-ouest des Alpes et des Apennins. Acta Bot Gall 151(3):319–326Google Scholar
  60. Tison J-M (2004b) Identité et situation taxonomique de Gagea polymorpha Boissier. Candollea 59(1):109–117Google Scholar
  61. Tison J-M (2004c) Contribution a la connaissance du genre Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae) en Afrique du Nord. Lagascalia 24:67–87Google Scholar
  62. Tison JM, Perret P (2004) Typification d’Ornithogalum pusillum F. W. Schmidt et relations taxonomiques entre Gagea pusilla (F. W. Schmidt) Sweet, Ornithogalum clusii Tausch et G. clusiana Schult. & Schult. f. Candollea 59(1):103–108Google Scholar
  63. Uphof JCT (1958) A review of the genus Gagea Salisb. Pl Life 14:124–133Google Scholar
  64. Van de Peer Y, De Wachter R (1994) Treecon for Windows: a software package for the construction and drawing of evolutionary trees for the Microsoft Windows environment. Comput Appl Biosci 10:569–570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Volkov RA, Komarova NY, Hemleben V (2007) Ribosomal DNA in plant hybrids: inheritance, rearrangement, expression. Syst Biodivers 5:261–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ (eds) PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 315–322Google Scholar
  67. Zander RH (2004) Minimal values for reliability of bootstrap and jackknife proportions, decay index, and Bayesian posterior probability. Phyloinformatics 2:1–13Google Scholar
  68. Zarrei M, Zarre S (2005a) A new species of Gagea (Liliaceae) from Iran. Nord J Bot 23:269–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Zarrei M, Zarre S (2005b) Pollen morphology of the genus Gagea (Liliaceae) in Iran. Flora 200:96–108Google Scholar
  70. Zarrei M, Zarre S, Wilkin P, Rix M (2007) Systematic revision of the genus Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae) in Iran. Bot J Linn Soc 154(4):559–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Zhao LQ, Yang J (2006) Gagea daqingshanensis (Liliaceae), a new species from Inner Mongolia, China. Ann Bot Fenn 43:223–224Google Scholar
  72. Zhao YZ, Zhao LQ (2003) A new species of Gagea (Liliaceae) from Nei Mongol, China. Acta Phytotax Sin 41(4):393–394Google Scholar
  73. Zhao YZ, Zhao LQ (2004) Gagea chinensis (Liliaceae), a new species from Inner Mongolia, China. Ann Bot Fenn 41:297–298Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Peruzzi
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. Peterson
    • 2
  • J.-M. Tison
    • 3
  • J. Peterson
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Biology, Unit of General and Systematic BotanyPisa UniversityPisaItaly
  2. 2.Martin-Luther-University of Halle-WittenbergHalle/SaaleGermany
  3. 3.L’Isle d’AbeauFrance
  4. 4.State Office for Environmental Protection of Saxony-AnhaltHalle/SaaleGermany

Personalised recommendations