Genome size in Dahlia Cav. (Asteraceae–Coreopsideae)
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- Temsch, E.M., Greilhuber, J., Hammett, K.R.W. et al. Plant Syst Evol (2008) 276: 157. doi:10.1007/s00606-008-0077-0
The genus Dahlia (Asteraceae–Coreopsideae) is monophyletic according to a recent DNA phylogeny (ETS and ITS of rDNA). Traditionally, the genus has been divided into sections, but these have been shown not to be monophyletic. We have studied variation in genome size (DNA C-values) in a sample of species to investigate the possible effects of secondary metabolites on flow cytometry and Feulgen densitometry, and to see whether genome size variation has any systematic or phylogenetic significance. Using a range of cultivars, secondary compounds from corollas were shown to have only minor effects on the Feulgen method; the floral pigments were found to be relatively inert and seemed to have been extracted on fixation with acetic methanol. Freshly expanded corollas showed apparent apoptotic DNA decay in epidermal cells, so need to be used with caution. Flow cytometric measurements with propidium iodide in some cultivars resulted in a very similar average genome size (2C = 8.62 pg) as compared with Feulgen densitometry (2C = 8.84 pg). Leaf cytosol of D. variabilis has a demonstrable inhibitory effect on propidium iodide fluorescence, which may explain some of the intraspecific variation of C-values observed. DNA 2C-values ranged from 3.30 pg in D. dissecta (2n = 34) to 9.62 pg in a D. variabilis cultivar (2n = 64). The D. variabilis cultivars had broadly similar C-values showing a 1.16-fold range between cultivars. Some of this variation probably results from technical variables and the extent of genuine variation is uncertain. The highest 2Cx-value occurred in one D. coccinea accession (2.47 pg, 2n = 32; x = 8). D. coccinea with 2n = 64 showed slightly reduced Cx-values compared to D. coccinea with 2n = 32. Artificially produced interspecific hybrids had C-values that corresponded closely with expectations from the measured values obtained from their parents.