Chromosomal features and evolution of Bromeliaceae
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New cytological information and chromosome counts are presented for 19 taxa of 15 genera of the Bromeliaceae, among them, data for 15 taxa and five genera are reported for the first time. The basic number x = 25 is confirmed and polyploidy seems to be the main evolutionary mechanism in Bromeliaceae. Most of the analyzed species presented 2n = 50. Polyploids have been detected in Deinacanthon urbanianum with 2n = ca.160 and Bromelia laciniosa with 2n = ca.150. In Deuterocohnia lorentziana we observed individuals with two different ploidy levels (2n = 50 and 2n = 100) growing together in the same pot. Ayensua uaipanensis showed the uncommon number 2n = 46. After triple staining with CMA3/Actinomycin/DAPI one or two CMA+/DAPI− bands could be observed in the studied species (Aechmea bromeliifolia, Greigia sphacelata and Ochagavia litoralis). The role of these features in the evolution of the family is discussed, revealing new aspects of the evolution of the Bromeliaceae.
KeywordsChromosomes polyploidy interphase nuclei bimodal karyotypes fluorochrome staining silver staining C banding heterochromatin
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