Comparative karyotype analysis in Haplopappus Cass. and Grindelia Willd. (Asteraceae) by double FISH with rRNA specific genes
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The genera Grindelia Willd. and Haplopappus Cass. belong to the family Asteraceae - Astereae and are distributed in America and South America, respectively. Previous cytotaxonomic studies showed for South American species of Grindelia 2n=12 and for Haplopappus 2n=10 and 2n=12. Both Grindelia species (G. anethifolia, G. prunelloides), newly analyzed with molecular-cytological methods, exhibited symmetric karyotypes (AsI %=55.46 and 55.95) with metacentric chromosome sets (5m + 1m-sat) and 2n=12 chromosomes. The NOR was detected after fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18/25S rDNA in the satellite chromosome 2. In contrast H. Happlopappus glutinosus, H. grindeloides and H. stolpii showed exclusively a higher asymmetric index (66.83%, 67.01% and 68.87%, respectively) with submetacentric chromosome sets (4sm + 1sm–sat). The sat-chromosomes 3 of H. glutinosus and H. grindelioides were both significantly different in their length from chromosomes 2 and 4. Furthermore in Grindelia the FISH with 5S rDNA could estimate signals in the short arms of chromosomes 3 or 4, that were not significantly differentiated in their length. Contrary to these findings in Grindelia, the position of 5S rDNA in Haplopappus was detected in the long arms of chromosome 1 (H. grindelioides and H. stolpii) and chromosome 2 (with two different loci) and chromosome 4 of H. glutinosus. The lengths of all measured chromosome arms with 5S rDNA were significantly different to those of the neighbours in the karyotypes. The two-color FISH of 5S and 18/25S rDNA had provided clear karyotypic markers for three (Haplopappus glutinosus) and two (H. grindelioides and H. stolpii) chromosomes. The number and position of rDNA signals were relatively highly conserved in the investigated five species without the double marked chromosome 2 of H. glutinosus, which shows an evolutionary dynamic of this 5S rRNA specific gene cluster. This investigation supports the assumption that the evolution of New World members of Grindelia and Haplopappus has not been accompanied by large karyotypic changes, but small chromosomal rearrangements have undoubtedly occurred (e.g. 5S rDNA localizations).
KeywordsHaplopappus Grindelia South America FISH 5S and 18/25S rRNA gene loci karyotype physical mapping
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