The chloroplast genome of the “basal” angiosperm Calycanthus fertilis – structural and phylogenetic analyses
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The nucleotide sequence of the complete chloroplast genome of a basal angiosperm, Calycanthus fertilis, has been determined. The circular 153337 bp long cpDNA is colinear with those of tobacco, Arabidopsis and spinach. A total of 133 predicted genes (115 individual gene species, 18 genes duplicated in the inverted repeats) including 88 potential protein-coding genes (81 gene species), 8 ribosomal RNA genes (4 gene species) and 37 tRNA genes (30 gene species) representing 20 amino acids were identified based on similarity to their homologs from other chloroplast genomes. This is the highest gene number ever registered in an angiosperm plastome. Calycanthus fertilis cpDNA also contains a homolog of the recently discovered mitochondrial ACRS gene. Since no gene transfer from mitochondria to the chloroplast has ever been documented, we investigated the evolutionary affinity of this gene in detail. Phylogenetic analysis of the protein-coding subset of the plastome suggests that the ancient line of Laurales emerged after the split of the angiosperms into monocots and dicots.
KeywordsCalycanthus fertilis angiosperms chloroplast genome evolution phylogeny substitution rates
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