Evolutionary history of the polyploid complex of Cardamine amara (Brassicaceae): isozyme evidence
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In samples from 56 populations of Cardamine amara, representing four diploid subspecies (subspp. amara, opicii, balcanica, and pyrenaea) and two tetraploid subspecies (subspp. austriaca and olotensis) from different parts of the European distribution area, four enzyme systems with 23 alleles were studied. These data, together with previous morphological and karyological data, suggest that the distribution and variation pattern within the species was strongly influenced by the last glacial period and postglacial migrations. Cardamine amara subsp. pyrenaea is monomorphic for a unique allele, and subsp. balcanica has a unique allele, too which, however, is not fixed in all populations of the taxon. Both taxa seem to be relic ones, although otherwise subsp. balcanica in respect of allelic spectrum much resembles subsp. amara. The other two diploid subspecies, subsp. amara and subsp. opicii, are not characterised by presence of unique alleles but differ in allele frequencies. The two tetraploid subspecies have different evolutionary histories. C. amara subsp. austriaca seems to be an autopolyploid derivative of subsp. amara which colonised open space offered by retreating glaciers in the Eastern Alps. C. amara subsp. olotensis from the Iberian Peninsula represents most probably a polyploid of preglacial time.
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