Microchimica Acta

, Volume 132, Issue 2–4, pp 137–143 | Cite as

X-Ray Microanalysis in the Environmental SEM: A Challenge or a Contradiction?

  • John F. Mansfield


 In this paper, the application of X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy in the environmental scanning electron microscope is reviewed. Various techniques that have been used to remove the effects of the beam spreading in the gaseous environment are discussed, specifically the pressure variation techniques and the beam-stop method. The results of the application of modified versions, developed at the University of Michigan, are also presented. It is shown that quantitative analysis in the environmental SEM, operating at 30 kV, is possible at short working distances (6 mm to 7.2 mm, gas path length 1.2 mm to 2.2 mm) in the 70 to 350 Pa range.

Key words: Environmental SEM; energy dispersive analysis; beam spreading; pressure variation in ESEM; water vapour in ESEM. 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • John F. Mansfield
    • 1
  1. 1.North Campus Electron Microbeam Analysis Laboratory, 417 SRB, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward, Ann Arbor MI 48109-2143, USAUS

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