Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Colorimetric aggregation assay based on array of gold and silver nanoparticles for simultaneous analysis of aflatoxins, ochratoxin and zearalenone by using chemometric analysis and paper based analytical devices

  • 12 Accesses

Abstract

A paper based sensor array is presented to discriminate and determine five mycotoxins classified into three categories, namely aflatoxins, ochratoxins and zearalenone. The gold and silver nanoparticles, synthesized by three different reducing or capping agents, were employed as sensing elements of the fabricated device. These nanoparticles were poured onto hydrophilic circular zones embedded on the hydrophobic substrate. The response of the assay is dependent on the aggregation of nanoparticles for interaction with mycotoxins. Due to aggregation, the gold and silver nanoparticles changed to purple and brown, respectively. Color changes provide unique colorimetric signatures conducive to recognizing the type of mycotoxin, identifying its chemical structure, and finding the fungi that produce it. The discrimination ability of the assay was investigated by both supervised (linear discriminate analysis) and unsupervised (principle component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis) pattern recognition methods. The assay was applied to the point of need determination of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin M1, ochratoxin A and zearalenone with a detection limit of 2.7, 7.3, 2.1, 3.3 and 7.0 ng.mL−1, respectively. The fabricated device has high potential of simultaneously determining the mycotoxins in pistachio, wheat, coffee and milk with the help of partial least square method. The root mean square errors for prediction of PLS model were 5.7, 5.2, 1.5, 7.2 and 2.9 for aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin M1, ochratoxin A and zearalenone, respectively.

Schematic representation of paper based colorimetric sensor array based on gold and silver nanoparticles for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of aflatoxins, ochratoxin and zearalenone.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Scheme 1
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

References

  1. 1.

    Chauhan R, Singh J, Sachdev T, Basu T, Malhotra BD (2016) Recent advances in mycotoxins detection. Biosens Bioelectron 81:532–545. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2016.03.004

  2. 2.

    Wu J, Zeng L, Li N et al (2019) A wash-free and label-free colorimetric biosensor for naked-eye detection of aflatoxin B1 using G-quadruplex as the signal reporter. Food Chem 298. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125034

  3. 3.

    Turner NW, Bramhmbhatt H, Szabo-Vezse M, Poma A, Coker R, Piletsky SA (2015) Analytical methods for determination of mycotoxins: an update (2009-2014). Anal Chim Acta 901:12–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2015.10.013

  4. 4.

    Yin N, Yuan S, Zhang M, Wang J, Li Y, Peng Y, Bai J, Ning B, Liang J, Gao Z (2019) An aptamer-based fluorometric zearalenone assay using a lighting-up silver nanocluster probe and catalyzed by a hairpin assembly. Microchim Acta 186:–8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00604-019-3984-6

  5. 5.

    He Y, Tian F, Zhou J, Jiao B (2019) A fluorescent aptasensor for ochratoxin A detection based on enzymatically generated copper nanoparticles with a polythymine scaffold. Microchim Acta 186:–7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00604-019-3314-z

  6. 6.

    Li R, Meng C, Wen Y, Fu W, He P (2019) Fluorometric lateral flow immunoassay for simultaneous determination of three mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol) using quantum dot microbeads. Microchim Acta 186:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00604-019-3879-6

  7. 7.

    Li Y, Wang J, Zhang B et al (2019) A rapid fluorometric method for determination of aflatoxin B 1 in plant-derived food by using a thioflavin T-based aptasensor. Microchim Acta 186. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00604-019-3325-9

  8. 8.

    Niazi S, Khan IM, Yu Y, et al (2019) A “turnon” aptasensor for simultaneous and time-resolved fluorometric determination of zearalenone, trichothecenes A and aflatoxin B1 using WS2 as a quencher. Microchim Acta 186. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00604-019-3570-y

  9. 9.

    Bordbar MM, Hemmateenejad B, Tashkhourian J, Nami-Ana SF (2018) An optoelectronic tongue based on an array of gold and silver nanoparticles for analysis of natural, synthetic and biological antioxidants. Microchim Acta 185. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00604-018-3021-1

  10. 10.

    Li Z, Askim JR, Suslick KS (2019) The optoelectronic nose: colorimetric and Fluorometric sensor arrays. Chem Rev 119:231–292. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.8b00226

  11. 11.

    You L, Zha D, Anslyn EV (2015) Recent advances in Supramolecular analytical chemistry using optical sensing. Chem Rev 115:7840–7892. https://doi.org/10.1021/cr5005524

  12. 12.

    Belushkin A, Yesilkoy F, Altug H (2018) Nanoparticle-enhanced Plasmonic biosensor for digital biomarker detection in a microarray. ACS Nano 12:4453–4461. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.8b00519

  13. 13.

    Yuan Z, Hu CC, Chang HT, Lu C (2016) Gold nanoparticles as sensitive optical probes. Analyst 141:1611–1626. https://doi.org/10.1039/c5an02651b

  14. 14.

    Sapsford KE, Algar WR, Berti L, Gemmill KB, Casey BJ, Oh E, Stewart MH, Medintz IL (2013) Functionalizing nanoparticles with biological molecules: developing chemistries that facilitate nanotechnology. Chem Rev 113:1904–2074. https://doi.org/10.1021/cr300143v

  15. 15.

    Phan CM, Nguyen HM (2017) Role of capping agent in wet synthesis of nanoparticles. J Phys Chem A 121:3213–3219. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpca.7b02186

  16. 16.

    Thanh NTK, Green LAW (2010) Functionalisation of nanoparticles for biomedical applications. Nano Today 5:213–230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nantod.2010.05.003

  17. 17.

    Abdelhalim A, Winkler M, Loghin F et al (2015) Highly sensitive and selective carbon nanotube-based gas sensor arrays functionalized with different metallic nanoparticles. Sensors Actuators B Chem 220:1288–1296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2015.06.138

  18. 18.

    Dmitriev A (2012) Nanoplasmonic sensors

  19. 19.

    Sabela M, Balme S, Bechelany M, et al (2017) A review of gold and silver nanoparticle-based colorimetric sensing assays. Adv Eng Mater 19: https://doi.org/10.1002/adem.201700270

  20. 20.

    Cate DM, Adkins JA, Mettakoonpitak J, Henry CS (2015) Recent developments in paper-based microfluidic devices. Anal Chem 87:19–41. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac503968p

  21. 21.

    Mahadeva SK, Walus K, Stoeber B (2015) Paper as a platform for sensing applications and other devices: a review. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7:8345–8362. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.5b00373

  22. 22.

    Nilghaz A, Guan L, Tan W, Shen W (2016) Advances of paper-based microfluidics for diagnostics - the original motivation and current status. ACS Sensors 1:1382–1393. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.6b00578

  23. 23.

    Tang RH, Liu LN, Zhang SF, et al (2019) A review on advances in methods for modification of paper supports for use in point-of-care testing. Microchim Acta 186. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00604-019-3626-z

  24. 24.

    Yang Y, Noviana E, Nguyen MP, Geiss BJ, Dandy DS, Henry CS (2017) Paper-based microfluidic devices: emerging themes and applications. Anal Chem 89:71–91. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.6b04581

  25. 25.

    Schenzel J, Forrer HR, Vogelgsang S, Hungerbühler K, Bucheli TD (2012) Mycotoxins in the environment: I. production and emission from an agricultural test field. Environ Sci Technol 46:13067–13075. https://doi.org/10.1021/es301557m

  26. 26.

    Magliulo M, Mirasoli M, Simoni P, Lelli R, Portanti O, Roda A (2005) Development and validation of an ultrasensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for aflatoxin M1 in milk. J Agric Food Chem 53:3300–3305. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0479315

  27. 27.

    Wu Y, Tilley RD, Gooding JJ (2019) Challenges and solutions in developing ultrasensitive biosensors. J Am Chem Soc 141:1162–1170. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.8b09397

  28. 28.

    Flores-Flores ME, Lizarraga E, López de Cerain A, González-Peñas E (2015) Presence of mycotoxins in animal milk: a review. Food Control 53:163–176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.01.020

  29. 29.

    Liu Z-P (2013) Linear discriminant analysis. Encycl Syst Biol:1132–1133. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-9863-7_395

  30. 30.

    Richard G.Brereton (2003) Chemometrics:data analysis for the LaboratoryandChemicalPlant. JohnWiley &Sons,Ltd

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from Research Councils of Shohadaye Hoveizeh University of Technology and Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences.

Author information

Correspondence to Azarmidokht Sheini.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

ESM 1

(DOCX 8087 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sheini, A. Colorimetric aggregation assay based on array of gold and silver nanoparticles for simultaneous analysis of aflatoxins, ochratoxin and zearalenone by using chemometric analysis and paper based analytical devices. Microchim Acta 187, 167 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00604-020-4147-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Mycotoxin
  • Statistical analysis
  • Food quality
  • Colorimetric sensor array
  • Paper based sensor