Microchimica Acta

, 187:135 | Cite as

Microwave-assisted synthesis of carbon dots as reductant and stabilizer for silver nanoparticles with enhanced-peroxidase like activity for colorimetric determination of hydrogen peroxide and glucose

  • Urooj GulEmail author
  • Shamsa Kanwal
  • Sobia Tabassum
  • Mazhar Amjad Gilani
  • Abdur RahimEmail author
Original Paper


A carbon silver nano-assembly was prepared from silver nanoparticles and carbon dots (AgNP@CD). It was used to quantify hydrogen peroxide and glucose by UV-visible spectroscopy. Banana peels were used to prepare the CDs by a microwave-assisted method. The CDs can be prepared within 5 min at 700 W. They act as (a) substrate, (b) stabilizer, and (c) reductant to convert silver ions to AgNPs. The nano-assembly was characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The CDs have a particle size of 1.4 nm. Photoexcitation of the CDs with a UV lamp of 365 nm results in blue fluorescence. The absorption spectra of the CDs show a peak at 205 nm along the wide shoulder absorption band. On incorporation of the Ag nanoparticles into the CDs matrix, the color of the CDs turns into yellow and an additional absorbance peak at 408 nm appears. FTIR spectroscopy shows that different functional groups are present on the CDs. They are responsible for the stabilization of the AgNPs. On exposure to H2O2, the color of the nano-assembly disappears gradually. Hence, the assembly can be used as a colorimetric indicator probe for H2O2 with a linear response in the 0.1-100 μM concentration range. It can also be applied to the determination of glucose by using glucose oxidase which causes the formation of H2O2 from glucose. The linear response ranges from 1- 600 μM. The detection limits for H2O2 and glucose are 9 nM and 10 nM, respectively. In our perception, this is the lowest detection limit reported so far. The AgNP@CD nano-assembly does not respond to saccharides, maltose, fructose, and lactose. It can be used to quantify glucose in diluted blood plasma.

Graphical abstract

Schematic representation of microwave-assisted synthesis of AgNP@CDs with enhanced-peroxidase like activity for colorimetric determination of hydrogen peroxide and glucose.


Peroxidase mimetic AgNPs Colorimetric probe Localized surface plasmon resonance Green synthesis LSPR 



The authors gratefully acknowledge H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270. Pakistan for financial support.

Supplementary material

604_2019_4098_MOESM1_ESM.docx (748 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 728 kb)


  1. 1.
    Hadwiger LA, Tanaka K (2017) Non-host resistance: DNA damage is associated with SA signaling for induction of PR genes and contributes to the growth suppression of a pea pathogen on pea endocarp tissue. Front Plant Sci 8:446–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Grisham MB (2013) Methods to detect hydrogen peroxide in living cells: possibilities and pitfalls. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 165(4):429–438. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chen X, Wu G, Cai Z, Oyama M, Chen X (2014) Advances in enzyme-free electrochemical sensors for hydrogen peroxide, glucose, and uric acid. Microchim Acta 181(7-8):689–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wolfbeis OS, Dürkop A, Wu M, Lin Z (2002) A europium-ion-based luminescent sensing probe for hydrogen peroxide. Angew Chem Int Ed 41(23):4495–4498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aziz A, Asif M, Ashraf G, Azeem M, Majeed I, Ajmal M, Wang J, Liu H (2019) Advancements in electrochemical sensing of hydrogen peroxide, glucose and dopamine by using 2D nanoarchitectures of layered double hydroxides or metal dichalcogenides. A review. Microchimica Acta 186(10):671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rivero PJ, Ibañez E, Goicoechea J, Urrutia A, Matias IR, Arregui FJ (2017) A self-referenced optical colorimetric sensor based on silver and gold nanoparticles for quantitative determination of hydrogen peroxide. Sensors Actuators B Chem 251:624–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Guo Z-X, Shen H-X, Li L (1999) Spectrophotometric determination of hydrogen peroxide and glucose based on hemin peroxidase-like catalyzed oxidation of bromopyrogallol red. Microchim Acta 131(3-4):171–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hanaoka S, Lin J-M, Yamada M (2001) Chemiluminescent flow sensor for H 2 O 2 based on the decomposition of H 2 O 2 catalyzed by cobalt (II)-ethanolamine complex immobilized on resin. Anal Chim Acta 426(1):57–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cai Q, Meng H, Liu Y, Li Z (2019) Fluorometric determination of glucose based on a redox reaction between glucose and aminopropyltriethoxysilane and in-situ formation of blue-green emitting silicon nanodots. Microchim Acta 186(2):78. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mattarozzi L, Cattarin S, Comisso N, Guerriero P, Musiani M, Verlato E (2016) Preparation of porous nanostructured Ag electrodes for sensitive electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide. Electrochim Acta 198:296–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chen S, Hai X, Chen X-W, Wang J-H (2014) In situ growth of silver nanoparticles on graphene quantum dots for ultrasensitive colorimetric detection of H2O2 and glucose. Anal Chem 86(13):6689–6694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lin L, Song X, Chen Y, Rong M, Zhao T, Wang Y, Jiang Y, Chen X (2015) Intrinsic peroxidase-like catalytic activity of nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots and their application in the colorimetric detection of H 2 O 2 and glucose. Anal Chim Acta 869:89–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lin T, Zhong L, Wang J, Guo L, Wu H, Guo Q, Fu F, Chen G (2014) Graphite-like carbon nitrides as peroxidase mimetics and their applications to glucose detection. Biosens Bioelectron 59:89–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Su L, Feng J, Zhou X, Ren C, Li H, Chen X (2012) Colorimetric detection of urine glucose based ZnFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles. Anal Chem 84(13):5753–5758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Choleva TG, Gatselou VA, Tsogas GZ, Giokas DL (2018) Intrinsic peroxidase-like activity of rhodium nanoparticles, and their application to the colorimetric determination of hydrogen peroxide and glucose. Microchim Acta 185(1):22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zong C, Li B, Wang J, Liu X, Zhao W, Zhang Q, Nie X, Yu Y (2018) Visual and colorimetric determination of H2O2 and glucose based on citrate-promoted H2O2 sculpturing of silver nanoparticles. Microchim Acta 185(3):199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zarif F, Rauf S, Qureshi MZ, Shah NS, Hayat A, Muhammad N, Rahim A, Nawaz MH, Nasir M (2018) Ionic liquid coated iron nanoparticles are promising peroxidase mimics for optical determination of H 2 O 2. Microchim Acta 185(6):302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Palazzo G, Facchini L, Mallardi A (2012) Colorimetric detection of sugars based on gold nanoparticle formation. Sensors Actuators B Chem 161(1):366–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bankar A, Joshi B, Kumar AR, Zinjarde S (2010) Banana peel extract mediated novel route for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Colloids Surf Physicochem Eng Aspects 368(1):58–63. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Menon S, Rajeshkumar S, Kumar SV (2017) A review on biogenic synthesis of gold nanoparticles, characterization, and its applications. Resource-Efficient Technologies 3(4):516–527. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rosi H, Kalyanasundaram S (2018) Synthesis, characterization, structural and optical properties of titanium-dioxide nanoparticles using Glycosmis cochinchinensis leaf extract and its photocatalytic evaluation and antimicrobial properties. World News of Natural Sciences 17:1–15Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gopinath V, MubarakAli D, Priyadarshini S, Priyadharsshini NM, Thajuddin N, Velusamy P (2012) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Tribulus terrestris and its antimicrobial activity: a novel biological approach. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces 96:69–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Natsuki J, Natsuki T, Hashimoto Y (2015) A review of silver nanoparticles: synthesis methods, properties and applications. Int J Mater Sci Appl 4:325–332Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zhang S, Tang Y, Vlahovic B (2016) A review on preparation and applications of silver-containing nanofibers. Nanoscale Res Lett 11(1):80. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shen L, Chen M, Hu L, Chen X, Wang J (2013) Growth and stabilization of silver nanoparticles on carbon dots and sensing application. Langmuir 29(52):16135–16140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Li Z, Friedrich A, Taubert A (2008) Gold microcrystal synthesis via reduction of HAuCl 4 by cellulose in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride. J Mater Chem 18(9):1008–1014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kajita M, Hikosaka K, Iitsuka M, Kanayama A, Toshima N, Miyamoto Y (2007) Platinum nanoparticle is a useful scavenger of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide. Free Radic Res 41(6):615–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wen T, Qu F, Li NB, Luo HQ (2012) Polyethyleneimine-capped silver nanoclusters as a fluorescence probe for sensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide and glucose. Anal Chim Acta 749:56–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wildgoose GG, Banks CE, Compton RG (2006) Metal nanoparticles and related materials supported on carbon nanotubes: methods and applications. Small 2(2):182–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gogoi S, Kumar M, Mandal BB, Karak N (2016) A renewable resource based carbon dot decorated hydroxyapatite nanohybrid and its fabrication with waterborne hyperbranched polyurethane for bone tissue engineering. RSC Adv 6(31):26066–26076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mansouri SS, Ghader S (2009) Experimental study on effect of different parameters on size and shape of triangular silver nanoparticles prepared by a simple and rapid method in aqueous solution. Arab J Chem 2(1):47–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lin L, Song X, Chen Y, Rong M, Zhao T, Wang Y, Jiang Y, Chen X (2015) Intrinsic peroxidase-like catalytic activity of nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots and their application in the colorimetric detection of H2O2 and glucose. Anal Chim Acta 869:89–95. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhang Y, Liu S, Wang L, Qin X, Tian J, Lu W, Chang G, Sun X (2012) One-pot green synthesis of Ag nanoparticles-graphene nanocomposites and their applications in SERS, H 2 O 2, and glucose sensing. RSC Adv 2(2):538–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lu W, Luo Y, Chang G, Sun X (2011) Synthesis of functional SiO2-coated graphene oxide nanosheets decorated with Ag nanoparticles for H2O2 and glucose detection. Biosens Bioelectron 26(12):4791–4797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Basiri S, Mehdinia A, Jabbari A (2018) A sensitive triple colorimetric sensor based on plasmonic response quenching of green synthesized silver nanoparticles for determination of Fe2+, hydrogen peroxide, and glucose. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 545:138–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nguyen ND, Van Nguyen T, Chu AD, Tran HV, Tran LT, Huynh CD (2018) A label-free colorimetric sensor based on silver nanoparticles directed to hydrogen peroxide and glucose. Arab J Chem 11(7):1134–1143CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Centre for Chemical and Biological SciencesUniversity of KarachiKarachiPakistan
  2. 2.Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM)COMSATS University IslamabadLahorePakistan
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryCOMSATS University IslamabadLahorePakistan

Personalised recommendations