Microchimica Acta

, 187:133 | Cite as

A network composed of gold nanoparticles and a poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel for colorimetric determination of ceftriaxone

  • Nahid PourrezaEmail author
  • Matineh Ghomi
Original Paper


A hydrogel network was prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and borax, and then was modified with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that were obtained by in-situ nucleation and growth. This modified network is shown to be a viable optical nanoprobe for the drug ceftriaxone (CTRX) in biological samples. The properties and morphology of the modified network were investigated using energy dispersive X-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy, zeta-sizing and viscosimetry. The UV-vis spectrum was recorded to verify the nanosynthesis of the red AuNPs, and the maximum absorption is found at 517 nm. This AuNP-poly(vinyl alcohol)-borax hydrogel nanoprobe (AuNP/PBH) is introduced as an optical nanoprobe for ceftriaxone in biological samples. The AuNPs have a better ability to attach the sulfur functional groups than amino functional groups. Hence, the probable mechanism is based on the attachment of sulfur functional groups of CRTX structure with AuNPs located in the PBH. As a result of this interaction, the surface plasmon resonance of AuNPs is altered in the presence of CTRX and the absorption of the nanoprobe is decreased at 517 nm. The effects of pH value, borax and PVA concentration were investigated. Under optimum conditions, the calibration graph is linear in the 1–90 μg mL−1 CTRX concentration range, and the limit of detection is 0.33 μg mL−1. The relative standard deviation for ten replicate measurements of at levels of 20 and 70 μg mL−1 of CTRX was 4.0% and 2.2%, respectively. The nanoprobe was successfully applied to the determination of CTRX in (spiked) serum and urine samples. The performance of the nanoprobe was compared with HPLC method and the results were satisfactory.

Graphical abstract

Schematic representation of a new nanoprobe based on in situ formation of AuNPs into poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-borax (PBH) hydrogel fabricated for ceftriaxone detection. The hydrogel acts as the reducing agent for production and embedding of AuNPs in the network.


AuNPs Nanoprobe Hydrogel Ceftriaxone Poly(vinyl alcohol) Colorimetry Borax 



The authors wish to thank Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz Research Council for the financial support of this work (grant 1396). The financial support of the Iranian Nanotechnology Initiative Council is also appreciated. The authors are sincerely grateful to the Environment Protection Agency (EPA) of Khuzestan Province (Iran) for kindly providing research facilities for this work.

Supplementary material

604_2019_4039_MOESM1_ESM.docx (284 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 284 kb)


  1. 1.
    Muhammad J, Khan S, Su JQ, Hesham AE-L, Ditta A, Nawab J, Ali A (2019) Antibiotics in poultry manure and their associated health issues: a systematic review. J Soils Sediments 1–12. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Saxena SK, Rangasamy R, Krishnan AA, Singh DP, Uke SP, Malekadi PK, Sengar AS, Mohamed DP, Gupta A (2018) Simultaneous determination of multi-residue and multi-class antibiotics in aquaculture shrimps by UPLC-MS/MS. Food Chem 260:336–343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schulz J, Kemper N, Hartung J, Janusch F, Mohring SA, Hamscher G (2019) Analysis of fluoroquinolones in dusts from intensive livestock farming and the co-occurrence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli. Sci Rep 9:5117PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Semreen MH, Shanableh A, Semerjian L, Alniss H, Mousa M, Bai X, Acharya K (2019) Simultaneous determination of pharmaceuticals by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: a case study from Sharjah sewage treatment plant. Molecules 24(3):633PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Levy SB, Marshall B (2004) Antibacterial resistance worldwide: causes, challenges and responses. Nat Med 10(12s):S122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yang Y, Song W, Lin H, Wang W, Du L, Xing W (2018) Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in global lakes: a review and meta-analysis. Environ Int 116:60–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zhang M, Huang X, Yahui W, Shi C, Pei P, Yang J, Dong Q, Cui X (2019) A rapid and simple UPLC method for serum vancomycin determination in pediatric patients undergoing continuous infusion or intermittent infusion of vancomycin. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 174:214–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Odewunmi NA, Kawde A-N, Ibrahim M (2019) In-situ single-step electrochemical AgO modified graphite pencil electrode for trace determination of DL-methionine in human serum sample. Sensors Actuators B Chem 281:765–773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dehghani M, Nasirizadeh N, Yazdanshenas ME (2019) Determination of cefixime using a novel electrochemical sensor produced with gold nanowires/graphene oxide/electropolymerized molecular imprinted polymer. Mater Sci Eng C 96:654–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sleegers N, van Nuijs AL, van den Berg M, De Wael K (2019) Cephalosporin antibiotics: electrochemical fingerprints and core structure reactions investigated by LC–MS/MS. Anal Chem 91(3):2035–2041PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    da Trindade MT, Salgado HRN (2018) A critical review of analytical methods for determination of ceftriaxone sodium. Crit Rev Anal Chem 48(2):95–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shahrouei F, Elhami S, Tahanpesar E (2018) Highly sensitive detection of ceftriaxone in water, food, pharmaceutical and biological samples based on gold nanoparticles in aqueous and micellar media. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 203:287–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Samadi N, Narimani S (2016) An ultrasensitive and selective method for the determination of ceftriaxone using cysteine capped cadmium sulfide fluorescence quenched quantum dots as fluorescence probes. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 163:8–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Saleh GA, El-Shaboury SR, Mohamed FA, Rageh AH (2009) Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of certain cephalosporins using oxidized quercetin reagent. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 73(5):946–954PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Qiao M, Jiang J, Yang J, Liu S, Liu Z, Hu X (2016) A sensitive “turn-on” fluorescent assay for quantification of ceftriaxone based on l-tryptophan-Pd (II) complex fluorophore. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 161:95–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Al-Momani I (2001) Spectrophotometric determination of selected cephalosporins in drug formulations using flow injection analysis. J Pharm Biomed Anal 25(5–6):751–757PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hamidi M, Azadi A, Rafiei P (2008) Hydrogel nanoparticles in drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 60(15):1638–1649PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Roy S, Banerjee A (2012) Functionalized single walled carbon nanotube containing amino acid based hydrogel: a hybrid nanomaterial. RSC Adv 2(5):2105–2111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Han J, Lei T, Wu Q (2014) High-water-content mouldable polyvinyl alcohol-borax hydrogels reinforced by well-dispersed cellulose nanoparticles: dynamic rheological properties and hydrogel formation mechanism. Carbohydr Polym 102:306–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Amin S, Rajabnezhad S, Kohli K (2009) Hydrogels as potential drug delivery systems. Sci Res Essays 4(11):1175–1183Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kandile NG, Nasr AS (2011) Hydrogels based on a three component system with potential for leaching metals. Carbohydr Polym 85(1):120–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bahram M, Hoseinzadeh F, Farhadi K, Saadat M, Najafi-Moghaddam P, Afkhami A (2014) Synthesis of gold nanoparticles using pH-sensitive hydrogel and its application for colorimetric determination of acetaminophen, ascorbic acid and folic acid. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 441:517–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhao Y, Liu B, Pan L, Yu G (2013) 3D nanostructured conductive polymer hydrogels for high-performance electrochemical devices. Energy Environ Sci 6(10):2856–2870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang J, Wang Z, Gao J, Wang L, Yang Z, Kong D, Yang Z (2009) Incorporation of supramolecular hydrogels into agarose hydrogels—a potential drug delivery carrier. J Mater Chem 19(42):7892–7896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gao W, Vecchio D, Li J, Zhu J, Zhang Q, Fu V, Li J, Thamphiwatana S, Lu D, Zhang L (2014) Hydrogel containing nanoparticle-stabilized liposomes for topical antimicrobial delivery. ACS Nano 8(3):2900–2907PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang M, Cui M, Liu W, Liu X (2019) Highly dispersed conductive polypyrrole hydrogels as sensitive sensor for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid. J Electroanal Chem 832:174–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nam J, Jung I-B, Kim B, Lee S-M, Kim S-E, Lee K-N, Shin D-S (2018) A colorimetric hydrogel biosensor for rapid detection of nitrite ions. Sensors Actuators B Chem 270:112–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pourreza N, Ghomi M (2017) A novel metal enhanced fluorescence bio probe for insulin sensing based on poly vinyl alcohol-borax hydrogel functionalized by Ag dots. Sensors Actuators B Chem 251:609–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pourreza N, Ghomi M (2018) In situ synthesized and embedded silver nanoclusters into poly vinyl alcohol-borax hydrogel as a novel dual mode “on and off” fluorescence sensor for Fe (III) and thiosulfate. Talanta 179:92–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Suarasan S, Focsan M, Maniu D, Astilean S (2013) Gelatin–nanogold bioconjugates as effective plasmonic platforms for SERS detection and tagging. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces 103:475–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Inamdar S, Pushpavanam K, Lentz JM, Bues M, Anand A, Rege K (2018) Hydrogel nanosensors for colorimetric detection and Dosimetry in proton beam radiotherapy. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 10(4):3274–3281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jeevika A, Shankaran DR (2016) Functionalized silver nanoparticles probe for visual colorimetric sensing of mercury. Mater Res Bull 83:48–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhang J, Mou L, Jiang X (2018) Hydrogels incorporating au@ polydopamine nanoparticles: robust performance for optical sensing. Anal Chem 90(19):11423–11430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Muthivhi R, Parani S, May B, Oluwafemi OS (2018) Green synthesis of gelatin-noble metal polymer nanocomposites for sensing of Hg2+ ions in aqueous media. Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects 13:132–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Khan MSJ, Khan SB, Kamal T, Asiri AM (2019) Agarose biopolymer coating on polyurethane sponge as host for catalytic silver metal nanoparticles. Polym Test 78:105983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Faoucher E, Nativo P, Black K, Claridge JB, Gass M, Romani S, Bleloch AL, Brust M (2009) In situ preparation of network forming gold nanoparticles in agarose hydrogels. Chem Commun 43:6661–6663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pulit J, Banach M (2013) Preparation of nanocrystalline silver using gelatin and glucose as stabilizing and reducing agents, respectively. Digest Journal of Nanomaterials & Biostructures (DJNB) 8(2):787–795Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Goldring JD (2019) Concentrating proteins by salt, polyethylene glycol, solvent, SDS precipitation, three-phase partitioning, dialysis, centrifugation, ultrafiltration, lyophilization, affinity chromatography, immunoprecipitation or increased temperature for protein isolation, drug interaction, and proteomic and peptidomic evaluation. Electrophoretic separation of proteins. Springer, pp 41-59Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dong BH, Hinestroza JP (2009) Metal nanoparticles on natural cellulose fibers: electrostatic assembly and in situ synthesis. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 1(4):797–803PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chairam S, Poolperm C, Somsook E (2009) Starch vermicelli template-assisted synthesis of size/shape-controlled nanoparticles. Carbohydr Polym 75(4):694–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Loughlin RG, Tunney MM, Donnelly RF, Murphy DJ, Jenkins M, McCarron PA (2008) Modulation of gel formation and drug-release characteristics of lidocaine-loaded poly (vinyl alcohol)-tetraborate hydrogel systems using scavenger polyol sugars. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 69(3):1135–1146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Aryal S, Remant B, Dharmaraj N, Bhattarai N, Kim CH, Kim HY (2006) Spectroscopic identification of SAu interaction in cysteine capped gold nanoparticles. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 63(1):160–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zhai S, Fang C, Yan J, Zhao Q, Tu Y (2017) A label-free genetic biosensor for diabetes based on AuNPs decorated ITO with electrochemiluminescent signaling. Anal Chim Acta 982:62–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Qin L, Zeng G, Lai C, Huang D, Zhang C, Xu P, Hu T, Liu X, Cheng M, Liu Y (2017) A visual application of gold nanoparticles: simple, reliable and sensitive detection of kanamycin based on hydrogen-bonding recognition. Sensors Actuators B Chem 243:946–954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jain U, Chauhan N (2017) Glycated hemoglobin detection with electrochemical sensing amplified by gold nanoparticles embedded N-doped graphene nanosheet. Biosens Bioelectron 89:578–584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Frasco M, Truta L, Sales M, Moreira F (2017) Imprinting technology in electrochemical biomimetic sensors. Sensors 17(3):523CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, College of ScienceShahid Chamran University of AhvazAhvaz Iran

Personalised recommendations