A network composed of gold nanoparticles and a poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel for colorimetric determination of ceftriaxone
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A hydrogel network was prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and borax, and then was modified with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that were obtained by in-situ nucleation and growth. This modified network is shown to be a viable optical nanoprobe for the drug ceftriaxone (CTRX) in biological samples. The properties and morphology of the modified network were investigated using energy dispersive X-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy, zeta-sizing and viscosimetry. The UV-vis spectrum was recorded to verify the nanosynthesis of the red AuNPs, and the maximum absorption is found at 517 nm. This AuNP-poly(vinyl alcohol)-borax hydrogel nanoprobe (AuNP/PBH) is introduced as an optical nanoprobe for ceftriaxone in biological samples. The AuNPs have a better ability to attach the sulfur functional groups than amino functional groups. Hence, the probable mechanism is based on the attachment of sulfur functional groups of CRTX structure with AuNPs located in the PBH. As a result of this interaction, the surface plasmon resonance of AuNPs is altered in the presence of CTRX and the absorption of the nanoprobe is decreased at 517 nm. The effects of pH value, borax and PVA concentration were investigated. Under optimum conditions, the calibration graph is linear in the 1–90 μg mL−1 CTRX concentration range, and the limit of detection is 0.33 μg mL−1. The relative standard deviation for ten replicate measurements of at levels of 20 and 70 μg mL−1 of CTRX was 4.0% and 2.2%, respectively. The nanoprobe was successfully applied to the determination of CTRX in (spiked) serum and urine samples. The performance of the nanoprobe was compared with HPLC method and the results were satisfactory.
KeywordsAuNPs Nanoprobe Hydrogel Ceftriaxone Poly(vinyl alcohol) Colorimetry Borax
The authors wish to thank Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz Research Council for the financial support of this work (grant 1396). The financial support of the Iranian Nanotechnology Initiative Council is also appreciated. The authors are sincerely grateful to the Environment Protection Agency (EPA) of Khuzestan Province (Iran) for kindly providing research facilities for this work.
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