Target-induced in-situ formation of fluorescent DNA-templated copper nanoparticles by a catalytic hairpin assembly: application to the determination of DNA and thrombin
A fluorometric method is described for nucleic acid signal amplification through target-induced catalytic hairpin assembly with DNA-templated copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs). The toehold-mediated self-assembly of three metastable hairpins is triggered in presence of target DNA. This leads to the formation of a three-way junction structure with protruding mononucleotides at the 3′ terminus. The target DNA is released from the formed branched structure and triggers another assembly cycle. As a result, plenty of branched DNA becomes available for the synthesis of Cu NPs which have fluorescence excitation/emission maxima at 340/590 nm. At the same time, the branched structure protects the Cu NPs from digestion by exonuclease III. The unreacted hairpins are digested by exonuclease III, and this warrants a lower background signal. The method can detect ssDNA (24 nt) at low concentration (44 pM) and is selective over single-nucleotide polymorphism. On addition of an aptamer, the strategy can also be applied to the quantitation of thrombin at levels as low as 0.9 nM.
KeywordsThree-way junction Exonuclease III Signal amplify Toehold Aptamer Strand displacement
This work was financially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (31801636), National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFC1600603),, and Shanghai Sailing Program (Grant No. 18YF1417300).
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