Microchimica Acta

, 187:1 | Cite as

An impedimetric biosensor based on electrophoretically assembled ZnO nanorods and carboxylated graphene nanoflakes on an indium tin oxide electrode for detection of the DNA of Escherichia coli O157:H7

  • Nandita Jaiswal
  • Chandra Mouli Pandey
  • Shipra Solanki
  • Ida TiwariEmail author
  • Bansi Dhar Malhotra
Original Paper


Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS)-functionalized zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods and carboxylated graphene nanoflakes (c-GNF) were used in a composite that was electrophoretically deposited on an indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate. The modified ITO electrodes were characterized using various microscopic and spectroscopic techniques which confirm the deposition of the APTMS-ZnO/c-GNF composite. The electrodes have been used for the covalent immobilization of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli)-specific DNA prob. Impedimetric studies revealed that the gene sensor displays linear response in a wide range of target DNA concentration (10−16 M to 10−6 M) with a detection limit of 0.1 fM. The studies on the cross-reactivity to other water-borne pathogens show that the bioelectrode is highly specific.

Graphical abstract

Schematic illustration for fabrication of nucleic acid biosensor for E. coli DNA detection using an ITO electrode modified with siloxane-functionalized zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods and carboxylated graphene nanoflakes (c-GNFs).


Biosensor Escherichia coli Zinc oxide Graphene nanoflakes Electrophoretic deposition 



N.J. and S.S. are thankful to CSIR, India for the award of SRF and RA, respectively. C.M.P. acknowledges the Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, India for DST-INSPIRE Faculty Award (DST/INSPIRE/04/2015/000932). We thank Dr. Gajjala Sumana (CSIR-National Physical Laboratory) for interesting discussions. N.J. and I.T. are sincerely thankful to Prof. O.N Srivastava (Dept. of Physics, I.Sc. B.H.U) and Prof. Rajiv Prakash (IIT B.H.U) for providing TEM and SEM facilities respectively. B.D.M. thanks Science & Engineering Research Board (Govt. of India) for the award of a Distinguished Fellowship (SB/S9/YSCP/SERB-DF/2018).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

604_2019_3921_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.3 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1346 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nandita Jaiswal
    • 1
  • Chandra Mouli Pandey
    • 2
  • Shipra Solanki
    • 3
  • Ida Tiwari
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bansi Dhar Malhotra
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry(Centre of Advanced Study), Institute of ScienceBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Applied ChemistryDelhi Technological UniversityDelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of BiotechnologyDelhi Technological UniversityDelhiIndia

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