Microchimica Acta

, 186:764 | Cite as

Electrochemical sensing of lactate by using an electrode modified with molecularly imprinted polymers, reduced graphene oxide and gold nanoparticles

  • Thulio César PereiraEmail author
  • Nelson Ramos Stradiotto
Original Paper


This paper reports on a sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor for lactic acid. The sensor is based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP), obtained on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with reduced graphene oxide and gold nanoparticles. The MIP was obtained by electropolymerization of the o-phenylenediamine (o-PD) on the modified surface of the GCE in the presence of lactic acid. The steps involving the GCE modification and MIP construction were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The results were evaluated using differential pulse voltammetry, using the hexacyanoferrate redox system as an electrochemical probe. Under optimized experimental conditions, the imprinted sensor has a linear response in the 0.1 nM to 1.0 nM lactic acid concentration range, with detection limit of 0.09 nM. The sensor exhibits excellent selectivity in the presence of molecules of similar chemical structure. It was applied for the selective determination of lactic acid in sugarcane vinasse. The recovery values ranged from 97.7 to 104.8%.

Graphical abstract

Schematic representation for MIP/AuNP/RGO/GCE sensor, obtained by electropolymerization of o-phenylediamine (o-PD) on a surface modified with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). These materials allowed the construction of a MIP-sensor with good selectivity for lactic acid.


Lactic acid Electrochemical sensor Sugarcane vinasse Electropolymerization o-Phenylenediamine 



The authors would like to thank the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES), National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) process n° 40878783/2018-4 and São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) process n° 2017/25329-6 for the financial support granted in the course of this research.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

604_2019_3898_MOESM1_ESM.doc (1 mb)
ESM 1 (DOC 1.03 mb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of ChemistrySão Paulo State University (UNESP)AraraquaraBrazil
  2. 2.Bioenergy Research InstituteSão Paulo State University (UNESP)AraraquaraBrazil

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