Microchimica Acta

, 186:733 | Cite as

Simultaneous determination of paracetamol and p-aminophenol using glassy carbon electrode modified with nitrogen- and sulfur- co-doped carbon dots

  • Jingjing Wang
  • Hua Zhang
  • Junhong Zhao
  • Ruyue Zhang
  • Na Zhao
  • Hailong Ren
  • Yingchun LiEmail author
Original Paper


Walnut shell was processed for preparing nanoporous carbon, which further underwent element doping in order to boost its performance. A novel electrochemical sensor was then built by using the nitrogen and sulfur co-doped walnut shell carbon (N,S-WSC). Morphology and microstructure of the materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (de)sorption which showed that N,S-WSC has a large specific surface with abundant pores. Electrochemical properties of differently modified sensors were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. They demonstrated enhanced conductivity and enlarged surface after N,S co-doping. The modified electrode exhibits good catalytic ability towards paracetamol (ACOP) and p-aminophenol (PAP), and baseline separation of their oxidation peaks (peak potential difference is 0.24 V) allows for simultaneous detection of these two compounds. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration plot is linear in the 0.1 to 220 μM ACOP concentration range, with a 26 nM detection limit. Response to PAP is linear from 1.0 to 300 μM, and the detection limit is 38 nM (at S/N = 3). The sensor was successfully applied to quantify ACOP and PAP in tablets, and the accuracy of results is validated by HPLC.

Graphical abstract

Schematic representation of a novel electrochemical sensor based on N, S co-doped walnut shell carbon modified glassy carbon electrode for determination of paracetamol and p-aminophenol.


Simultaneous detection Electrochemical sensor Pharmaceutical analysis Scanning electron microscopy Brunauer-Emmett-Teller Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy Cyclic voltammetry Differential pulse voltammetry Nanoporous material 



The work financially supported by Innovation and entrepreneurship project for overseas high-level talents of Shenzhen (KQJSCX20180328165437711) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (81773680).

Supplementary material

604_2019_3870_MOESM1_ESM.doc (1.4 mb)
ESM 1 (DOC 1.43 mb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jingjing Wang
    • 1
  • Hua Zhang
    • 1
  • Junhong Zhao
    • 2
  • Ruyue Zhang
    • 1
  • Na Zhao
    • 1
  • Hailong Ren
    • 3
  • Yingchun Li
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Phytomedicine Resources for Ministry of Education, School of PharmacyShihezi UniversityShiheziChina
  2. 2.School of ScienceHarbin Institute of TechnologyShenzhenChina
  3. 3.Key Laboratory for Green Processing of Chemical Engineering of Xinjiang Bingtuan, School of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringShihezi UniversityShiheziChina

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