Microchimica Acta

, 186:695 | Cite as

A multichannel system integrating molecularly imprinted conductive polymers for ultrasensitive voltammetric determination of four steroid hormones in urine

  • Mei-Hwa Lee
  • James L. Thomas
  • Wei-Chiun Liu
  • Zheng-Xiang Zhang
  • Bin-Da Liu
  • Chien-Hsin YangEmail author
  • Hung-Yin LinEmail author
Original Paper


This work reports on a modularized electrochemical method for the determination of the hormones cortisol, progesterone, testosterone and 17β-estradiol in urine. These hormones were employed as templates when generating molecular imprints from aniline and metanilic acid by electropolymerization on the surface of screen-printed electrodes. The electrically conductive imprint was characterized by SEM, AFM and cyclic voltammetry. A four-channel system was then established to enable simultaneous determination of the hormones by cyclic voltammetry. The detection limits for cortisol, progesterone, testosterone and 17β-estradiol are as low as 2, 2.5, 10 and 9 ag·mL−1 (for S/N = 3).

Graphical abstract

A four-channel system was established to enable simultaneous determination of 4 steroid hormones by cyclic voltammetry and by using moleculalry imprinted polymers.


Multichannel potentiostat Hormones Molecular imprinting Electrochemical sensing Urine analysis 



The authors would like to appreciate the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Republic of China, Taiwan for financially supporting this research under contract nos. MOST 106-2221-E-390-013-MY3, 106-2314-B-390-001-MY2 and 107-2923-M-390-001-MY3.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2019_3797_MOESM1_ESM.doc (1.1 mb)
ESM 1 (DOC 1140 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringI-Shou UniversityKaohsiungTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Physics and AstronomyUniversity of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA
  3. 3.Department of Electrical EngineeringNational Cheng Kung UniversityTainanTaiwan
  4. 4.Department of Chemical and Materials EngineeringNational University of Kaohsiung (NUK)KaohsiungTaiwan

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