Microchimica Acta

, 186:646 | Cite as

A study on the electro-reductive cycle of amino-functionalized graphene quantum dots immobilized on graphene oxide for amperometric determination of oxalic acid

  • Praveen Mishra
  • Badekai Ramachandra BhatEmail author
Original Paper


Amino-functionalized graphene quantum dots (NH2-GQD) are described for the amperometric determination of oxalic acid. The NH2-GQD were synthesized via a hydrothermal method using hexamethylenetetramine as the source for nitrogen. The average particle size of the GQD is ∼30 nm, which is also supported by TEM. Electrochemical analysis of the NH2-GQD-GO composite on a glassy carbon electrode at pH 7.4 showed a faint reduction peak at −0.6 V vs. SCE, which was enhanced in the presence of oxalic acid. This variation in cathodic current density is an interesting deviation from the usually studied anodic current density for the electrochemical sensors. This is also supported by cyclic voltammetry and time-based amperometric measurements. The electrode has a linear response in the 0.5–2.0 mM and 2.0–55 mM oxalate concentration ranges and a 50 μM detection limit (at S/N = 3). The electrode was successfully applied to the determination of oxalate in spiked urine samples.

Graphical abstract

Schematic representation of the fabrication of amino-functionalized graphene quantum dots and graphene oxide composite coated on glassy carbon electrode for utilizing the electro-reduction peak in cyclic voltammetry at around −0.6 V for the quantitative determination of oxalic acid.


Electrochemical analysis; cathodic current density Cyclic voltammetry Amperometery 



Mr. Praveen Mishra is thankful for the financial and infrastructural support extended by the National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Mangalore.

Compliance with ethical standards

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Supplementary material

604_2019_3745_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.4 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1471 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Catalysis and Materials Laboratory, Department of ChemistryNational Institute of Technology KarnatakaMangaloreIndia

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