Microchimica Acta

, 186:654 | Cite as

Highly selective extraction and voltammetric determination of the opioid drug buprenorphine via a carbon paste electrode impregnated with nano-sized molecularly imprinted polymer

  • Taher AlizadehEmail author
  • Fatemeh Atashi
  • Maedeh Akhoundian
  • Mohammad Reza Ganjali
Original Paper


An electrochemical sensor for the opioid drug buprenorphine (BUP) is described. Molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIP) were prepared and used to modify a carbon paste electrode (CPE). The BUP-imprinted polymer was synthesized using precipitation polymerization. The resulting polymer along with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was used to fabricate the modified CPE which exhibited an anodic peak at about +0.73 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) for BUP. The MIP on the CPE functions as selective recognition element with an imprinting factor of 5.6. The assay consists of two-steps, viz. analyte extraction at the electrode surface and differential pulse voltammetric determination of BUP. The effects of various parameters on the electrochemical signal were optimized, and the selectivity of the modified CPE over cross reactants was studied. At optimum experimental conditions, the response is linear in the 1 nM to 50 μM BUP concentration range, and the detection limit is 0.6 nM (at S/N = 3). This method was applied to the determination of BUP in spiked urine with acceptable relative standard deviations (3.2–4.4%).

Graphical abstract

Schematic representation of buprenorphine (BUP) recognition and voltammetric determination at the surface of carbon paste electrode modified with imprinted polymer and carbon nanotubes.


Subutex Opioid drug Carbon nanotube Carbon paste electrode Imprinted polymer Buprenorphine Voltammetric sensor Nanoparticles Differential pulse voltammetry Urine analysis 


Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2019_3736_MOESM1_ESM.docx (72 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 72 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Taher Alizadeh
    • 1
    Email author
  • Fatemeh Atashi
    • 1
  • Maedeh Akhoundian
    • 1
  • Mohammad Reza Ganjali
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of ChemistryUniversity College of Science, University of TehranTehranIran
  2. 2.Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology & Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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