Modification of N,S co-doped graphene quantum dots with p-aminothiophenol-functionalized gold nanoparticles for molecular imprint-based voltammetric determination of the antiviral drug sofosbuvir
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A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was developed for the electrochemical determination of the antiviral drug sofosbuvir (SOF). The MIP was obtained by polymerization of p-aminothiophenol (p-ATP) on N,S co-doped graphene quantum dots (N,S@GQDs) in the presence of gold nanoparticles to form gold-sulfur covalent network. The presence of quantum dots improves the electron transfer rate, enhances surface activity and amplifies the signal. The nanocomposites were characterized by FTIR, TEM, EDX, and SEM. The electrochemical performance of the electrode was investigated by differential pulse voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry. The sensor uses hexacyanoferrate as the redox probe and is best operated at a potential of around 0.36 V vs. Ag/AgCl. It has a linear response over the concentration range of 1–400 nM SOF, with a detection limit of 0.36 nM. Other features include high selectivity, good reproducibility and temporal stability. The sensor was applied to the determination of SOF in spiked human plasma.
KeywordsElectrochemical sensor Gold-sulfur covalent network Characterization techniques Selectivity Temporal stability Human plasma
The authors thank the Deanship of Scientific Research, Najran University for funding the work; Project Code [NU/MID/16/032].
Compliance with ethical standards
The author(s) declare that they have no competing interest.
Ethical standards and informed consent
Collection of samples was from healthy volunteers at Assiut University Clinics. All experimental procedures and protocols were reviewed and approved by the ethics of Assiut University clinics, Assiut, Egypt. Informed consents were obtained from the human participants for this study.
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