Microchimica Acta

, 186:220 | Cite as

Low fouling electrochemical sensing in complex biological media by using the ionic liquid-doped conducting polymer PEDOT: application to voltammetric determination of dopamine

  • Zhen Song
  • Ge Sheng
  • Yige Cui
  • Mengru Li
  • Zhiling Song
  • Caifeng Ding
  • Xiliang LuoEmail author
Original Paper


An electrochemical sensor that can resist biofouling even when operated in complex biological medium is developed for the determination of dopamine. It is based on the use of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) that is doped with the water insoluble ionic liquid (IL), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. A glassy carbon electrode modified with PEDOT/IL is shown to enable accurate determination of dopamine, as a model analyte in the presence of high concentrations of proteins, and resist biological fouling even in native serum. It exhibited a low limit of detection of 33 nM for the detection of dopamine, with a wide linear range from 0.2 to 328 μM (at 0.2 V vs. saturated calomel electrode). The PEDOT/IL modified glassy carbon electrode has a porous microstructure, high electrical conductivity and good stability. The sensor can be used to quantify dopamine in human urine samples with satisfying accuracy.

Graphical abstract

An antifouling electrochemical sensor capable of detecting target in complex biological samples was developed based on the use of a conducting polymer (PEDOT) that was doped with a water insoluble ionic liquid.


Conducting polymer nanocomposite Electrochemical sensors Antifouling Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Electrodeposition Dopamine determination 



This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21675093, 21422504), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province of China (JQ201406), and the Taishan Scholar Program of Shandong Province of China (ts20110829).

Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2019_3340_MOESM1_ESM.doc (5.4 mb)
ESM 1 (DOC 5.38 MB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Optic-electric Sensing and Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, MOEQingdao University of Science and TechnologyQingdaoPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Shandong Key Laboratory of Biochemical AnalysisQingdao University of Science and TechnologyQingdaoPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science in Universities of ShandongQingdao University of Science and TechnologyQingdaoPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.College of Chemistry and Molecular EngineeringQingdao University of Science and TechnologyQingdaoPeople’s Republic of China

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