Microchimica Acta

, 186:218 | Cite as

A nitrocellulose paper strip for fluorometric determination of bisphenol A using molecularly imprinted nanoparticles

  • Recep Üzek
  • Esma Sari
  • Serap Şenel
  • Adil Denizli
  • Arben MerkoçiEmail author
Original Paper


The authors describe a test stripe for fluorometric determination of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA). Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were immobilized on molecularly imprinted nanoparticles which then were placed on nitrocellulose paper. The GQDs display blue fluorescence (with excitation/emission peaks at 350/440 nm) which is reduced in the presence of BPA. The test stripe has a 43.9 ± 0.8 μg·L−1 limit of detection in case of water samples. The stripe was applied to the determination of BPA in (spiked) tap water and sea water, and the LODs were found to be 1.8 ± 0.2 μg·L−1 and 4.2 ± 0.5 μg·L−1, respectively. Structural analogs of BPA, such as aminophenol, phenol, hydroquinone and naphthol were found not to interfere.

Graphical abstract

Schematic presentation of graphene quantum dots immobilized on molecularly imprinted nanoparticles placed on nitrocellulose paper for the determination of Bisphenol A in tap water and seawater. The method is based on the fluorescence quenching due to binding of targets in specific recognition sites.


Graphene quantum dot Endocrine disruptor Fluorescence quenching Paper sensor Molecular recognition 



Recep Üzek thanks to TUBITAK for the given scholarship. We acknowledge support from MINECO, Spain for MAT2017-87202-P and Graphene Flagship Core Project 2 (Ref: 785219). ICN2 is supported by the Severo Ochoa program from Spanish MINECO (Grant No. SEV-2017-0706). This work is also funded by the CERCA Programme / Generalitat de Catalunya.

Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2019_3323_MOESM1_ESM.doc (11.2 mb)
ESM 1 (DOC 11490 kb)


  1. 1.
    Vandenberg LN, Hauser R, Marcus M, Olea N, Welshons WV (2007) Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA). Reprod Toxicol 24(2):139–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brede C, Fjeldal P, Skjevrak I, Herikstad H (2003) Increased migration levels of bisphenol A from polycarbonate baby bottles after dishwashing, boiling and brushing. Food Addit Contam 20(7):684–689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Maia J, Cruz J, Sendón R, Bustos J, Sanchez J, Paseiro P (2009) Effect of detergents in the release of bisphenol A from polycarbonate baby bottles. Food Res Int 42(10):1410–1414Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Burridge E (2003) Bisphenol A: product profile. Eur Chem News 17:14–20Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Staples CA, Dome PB, Klecka GM, Oblock ST, Harris LR (1998) A review of the environmental fate, effects, and exposures of bisphenol A. Chemosphere 36(10):2149–2173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wozniak AL, Bulayeva NN, Watson CS (2005) Xenoestrogens at picomolar to nanomolar concentrations trigger membrane estrogen receptor-α-mediated Ca2+ fluxes and prolactin release in GH3/B6 pituitary tumor cells. Environ Health Perspect 113:431–439PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vandenberg LN, Maffini MV, Sonnenschein C, Rubin BS, Soto AM (2009) Bisphenol-A and the great divide: a review of controversies in the field of endocrine disruption. Endocr Rev 30(1):75–95PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wolstenholme JT, Rissman EF, Connelly JJ (2011) The role of bisphenol A in shaping the brain, epigenome and behavior. Horm Behav 59(3):296–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tharp AP, Maffini MV, Hunt PA, VandeVoort CA, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM (2012) Bisphenol A alters the development of the rhesus monkey mammary gland. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109(21):8190–8195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Watabe Y, Kondo T, Morita M, Tanaka N, Haginaka J, Hosoya K (2004) Determination of bisphenol A in environmental water at ultra-low level by high-performance liquid chromatography with an effective on-line pretreatment device. J Chromatogr A 1032(1):45–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kim A, Li C-R, Jin C-F, Lee KW, Lee S-H, Shon K-J, Park NG, Kim D-K, Kang S-W, Shim Y-B (2007) A sensitive and reliable quantification method for bisphenol A based on modified competitive ELISA method. Chemosphere 68(7):1204–1209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Xue F, Wu J, Chu H, Mei Z, Ye Y, Liu J, Zhang R, Peng C, Zheng L, Chen W (2013) Electrochemical aptasensor for the determination of bisphenol A in drinking water. Microchim Acta 180(1–2):109–115Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ren X, Cheshari EC, Qi J, Li X (2018) Silver microspheres coated with a molecularly imprinted polymer as a SERS substrate for sensitive detection of bisphenol A. Microchim Acta 185(4):242Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ensafi AA, Amini M, Rezaei B (2018) Molecularly imprinted electrochemical aptasensor for the attomolar detection of bisphenol A. Microchim Acta 185:265Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Goulart LA, Gonçalves R, Correa AA, Pereira EC, Mascaro LH (2018) Synergic effect of silver nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes on the simultaneous voltammetric determination of hydroquinone, catechol, bisphenol A and phenol. Microchim Acta 185(1):12Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kawaguchi M, Ito R, Endo N, Okanouchi N, Sakui N, Saito K, Nakazawa H (2006) Liquid phase microextraction with in situ derivatization for measurement of bisphenol A in river water sample by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1110(1):1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fenlon KA, Johnson AC, Tyler CR, Hill EM (2010) Gas–liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry methodology for the quantitation of estrogenic contaminants in bile of fish exposed to wastewater treatment works effluents and from wild populations. J Chromatogr A 1217(1):112–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li X, Franke AA (2015) Improvement of bisphenol A quantitation from urine by LCMS. Anal Bioanal Chem 407(13):3869–3874PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mei Q, Zhang K, Guan G, Liu B, Wang S, Zhang Z (2010) Highly efficient photoluminescent graphene oxide with tunable surface properties. Chem Commun 46(39):7319–7321Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zheng XT, Than A, Ananthanaraya A, Kim D-H, Chen P (2013) Graphene quantum dots as universal fluorophores and their use in revealing regulated trafficking of insulin receptors in adipocytes. ACS Nano 7(7):6278–6286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pan D, Zhang J, Li Z, Wu M (2010) Hydrothermal route for cutting graphene sheets into blue-luminescent graphene quantum dots. Adv Mater 22(6):734–738PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Baker SN, Baker GA (2010) Luminescent carbon nanodots: emergent nanolights. Angew Chem Int Ed 49(38):6726–6744Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shen J, Zhu Y, Chen C, Yang X, Li C (2011) Facile preparation and upconversion luminescence of graphene quantum dots. Chem Commun 47(9):2580–2582Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sun H, Wu L, Wei W, Qu XJMT (2013) Recent advances in graphene quantum dots for sensing. Mater Today 16(11):433–442Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Li H, He X, Kang Z, Huang H, Liu Y, Liu J, Lian S, Tsang CHA, Yang X, Lee ST (2010) Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and Photocatalyst design. Angew Chem Int Ed 49(26):4430–4434Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Qu D, Zheng M, Du P, Zhou Y, Zhang L, Li D, Tan H, Zhao Z, Xie Z, Sun Z (2013) Highly luminescent S, N co-doped graphene quantum dots with broad visible absorption bands for visible light photocatalysts. Nanoscale 5(24):12272–12277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sun X, Liu Z, Welsher K, Robinson JT, Goodwin A, Zaric S, Dai H (2008) Nano-graphene oxide for cellular imaging and drug delivery. Nano Res 1(3):203–212PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lin Y, Chapman R, Stevens MM (2015) Integrative self-assembly of graphene quantum dots and biopolymers into a versatile biosensing toolkit. Adv Funct Mater 25(21):3183–3192PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nigam P, Waghmode S, Louis M, Wangnoo S, Chavan P, Sarkar D (2014) Graphene quantum dots conjugated albumin nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery and imaging of pancreatic cancer. J Mater Chem B 2(21):3190–3195Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Su Z, Shen H, Wang H, Wang J, Li J, Nienhaus GU, Shang L, Wei G (2015) Motif-designed peptide nanofibers decorated with graphene quantum dots for simultaneous targeting and imaging of tumor cells. Adv Funct Mater 25(34):5472–5478Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bereli N, Andaç M, Baydemir G, Say R, Galaev IY, Denizli A (2008) Protein recognition via ion-coordinated molecularly imprinted supermacroporous cryogels. J Chromatogr A 1190(1):18–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yin J, Yang G, Chen YJJoCA (2005) Rapid and efficient chiral separation of nateglinide and its l-enantiomer on monolithic molecularly imprinted polymers. 1090 (1–2):68–75Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Birlik E, Ersöz A, Denizli A, Say R (2006) Preconcentration of copper using double-imprinted polymer via solid phase extraction. Anal Chim Acta 565(2):145–151Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Uzun L, Uzek R, Şenel S, Say R, Denizli A (2013) Chiral recognition of proteins having L-histidine residues on the surface with lanthanide ion complex incorporated-molecularly imprinted fluorescent nanoparticles. Mater Sci Eng C 33(6):3432–3439Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chen L, Xu S, Li J (2011) Recent advances in molecular imprinting technology: current status, challenges and highlighted applications. Chem Soc Rev 40(5):2922–2942PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Recep Üzek
    • 1
    • 2
  • Esma Sari
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Serap Şenel
    • 2
  • Adil Denizli
    • 2
  • Arben Merkoçi
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and BISTBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry, Polatlı Faculty of Science and ArtsAnkara Hacı Bayram Veli UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  4. 4.ICREABarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations